Broken nose: signs, symptoms, and treatment options
How to understand that nose is broken?
About 45% of the total number of injuries of bones of the facial skeleton is a broken nose. Violation of anatomical structures entail production or domestic injuries, falls, sports, accidents.
Consequences of mechanical injuries is the change of integrity of bone tissue, the divergence of the nasal bone at the seams, deformation of the maxillary processes and the nasal septum.
What are fractures of the nose
The classification of fractures based on the character of deformation, direction of impact, the design of the facial skeleton.
Clinicians widespread typification of violation of the integrity of the nasal bones at the U. N. Volkov, who identifies the following bone changes relative to the initial position:
- without displacement of fragments and deformation of the external part of the nose open/closed type (lateral cartilage, muscles, paired large cartilage wing);
- with displacement of the bones and deformity of the external nose;
- damage to the nasal septum;
- modification of the frontal processes of the maxilla.
Variation of fractures of the nasal bones positioned one-way or multiple fractures of the lateral parts and partitions. A degloving injury is characterized by the deformation of the skin and epithelium, bulging of the bone fragments.
The most dangerous anatomical changes with displacement of the bones. Consequences of the defect are violations drainage of the nose, fluid and electrolyte balance, inflammation of soft tissues purulent character, cosmetic flaw.
Important! A serious complication of fractures of the facial skull is an inflammation of the peripheral nerves (neuritis)
How to determine that the nose is broken
To determine whether a broken nose can be characteristic features:
- expressed pain syndrome, which is worse on palpation;
- the bruises from subcutaneous hemorrhage due to rupture of blood vessels;
- shock, as a result of mental shock or mechanical damage;
- seizures or momentary loss of consciousness. This symptom is preceded by the violation of the integrity of the ethmoid bone, connective structures of the brain;
- nosebleeds. The volume of the lymph expiration determines the degree of damage to the capillary network;
- emphysema. Respiratory disease characterized by destructive morphological changes in the organs of air breathing (lungs). The development of the pathology is associated with lesions of the lattice structure;
- the watery eyes. The root causes are damage to the nasolacrimal canal;
- the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. Typical for fracture of the unpaired bones of the brain of the Department, violation of the integrity of the membranes of the brain.
The above symptoms belong to the primary morphological changes, joined late signs of broken nose:
- swelling. Is manifested by excessive accumulation of fluid in the extracellular tissue spaces of the body, a blockage of the pneumatic cavities;
- hematoma around nasal cavity, eyes. The tumor is round or oblong in shape with a content of liquid or dried blood arises against mechanical damages of upper body or rupture of blood vessels;
- the reinfection. A comprehensive response is observed in the localization of pathogenic strains of the open wound surface, promoting throughout the body.
Within 24 hours the swelling spreads to the cheeks and eyelids, impaired drainage function. The symmetrical livid bruises under the eyes indicates damage to the integrity of the bony structures of the skull.
For reference! It is not recommended to remove the mucus strong sharp exhalation, because it can provoke the risk of developing emphysema.
To understand whether a broken nose after the impact, comparing the symptoms with the characteristics of the pathology. Even if the diagnosis is obvious, treatment of anatomical changes should be done according to the recommendations of the expert.
Conservative methods of restoration
Not to cause more damage the bone and soft structures, it is strictly forbidden to independently set the bones.
Initially, you need to differentiate the injury from fracture of the facial skeleton. How to understand that your nose is broken? To do this, gently palpating the outer part of the upper body.
When anatomical irregularities light touch causing intense pain, the sounds of «crunch of snow under my feet», nasal breathing difficulty, profuse flow of blood from the paranasal sinuses, which cannot be stopped with cold compresses.
First aid for broken nose
The skills execution of preventive measures depends on the further development of the clinical picture.
The actions of the victim are the following manipulations:
- Make the position «sitting» with her head forward to keep blood from getting into the respiratory tract.
- To clear the sinuses from the dirt and possible infections running water.
- On the injury impact of cold.
- External wound to treat the surface with antiseptic agents.
- If bleeding is provoked by damage to the inner structures of both nostrils press the index finger and thumb to the nasal septum for 10 minutes to stop the bleeding. If attempts have not yielded the positive result that the pneumatic cavity to tamponade with gauze bundles.
- Seek medical aid or call emergency visiting team.
If after these actions, the victim’s condition is normalized, the visit to the doctor is necessary to determine the extent of injury the bone and cartilage structure.
Traditional methods of treatment
Taking into account the localization and variation of injuries of the nasal bones, the doctor is the medical scheme. A comprehensive treatment of anatomical deformities involves the administration of drugs of different therapeutic groups:
The first line is represented by «Analgin», «Deksalgin», «Ketorolac». Medicines have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic action. Well absorbed into the body, quickly reach high concentrations in the blood. Prescribed for the pain of different etiology intramuscularly, intravenously or in pill form.
Nuance! To improve therapeutic properties of drugs before use it is advisable to clear the sinuses a saline solution or a special moisturizing pharmacy resources: «Akvamaris», «Dolfino», «Humer», «Marineros».
To reduce hyperemia, normalization of natural breathing, reduce swelling use «Nazivin», «Naphazoline», «ksimelin», «Otrivin». Eye drops have no effect on pathogenesis, operate at the local level, are not absorbed into the systemic circulation. The therapeutic effect occurs within 5-10 minutes after instillation, persists from 4 to 10 hours.
Prescribed to prevent infection of the wound space and tissue rejection in the form of ointments, tablets, injections, solutions for wetting swabs. Effectiveness proved «Streptomycin», «Eritromicina ointment», «Doxycycline», «Gentamicine solution for injections».
Prolonged and heavy bleeding doctors include a therapeutic regimen drugs for blood clotting. The mechanism of action of homeostatic products is associated with their ability to block the activators, a key enzyme of fibrinolysis.
Indications for hospitalization is the fracture of bone and external deformation, violation of the integrity of the paranasal sinuses, the main organ of the CNS, recurrent flow of blood, obstruction of the nasal passages.
The displacement performed by the doctor reposition. The procedure for mapping of the bone fragments is performed with the patient lying/sitting under local anesthesia.
In lateral deviation of the bone returns to its original position when compressed by the fingers, the shear in the anteroposterior direction require the use of the Elevator. Upon completion of the manipulation in the nasal passages inserted a cotton swab dipped in antibacterial solution.
To improve the fixation of the bundles treated with paraffin. Are the discs from 5-7 days with the systematic replacement every 2-3 days. To prevent displacement of the fragments may apply bus external fixation that keep the sinuses to 14 days.
For reference! During the recovery period the patient is contraindicated to use the sauna, steam rooms, excessive physical exertion, wearing glasses for 3 to 4 weeks.
The conduct of the reposition is limited to a three-week period. It is advisable to perform the procedure when the swelling 3-4 days after injury, with brain damage suffer 6 hours.
If time is lost to correct the defect of the nose is possible only surgically. Rhinoplasty is a modified form of upper body, the nasal septum. The rehabilitation period requires wearing a special splint or plaster cast for up to two weeks.
Treatment for a broken nose at home
To speed up the healing process in the home will help proper diet, massaging the nasal cavity, traditional recipes.
Effective in the treatment of injuries of the facial skeleton are the following recommendations:
- clay. Used for the enrichment of bone calcium, relief of inflammation in the soft tissues. In a glass of water diluted with a tablespoon of the dry powder, take half an hour before meals 3 times a day until complete recovery;
- infusion of horsetail. 10-15 g dry raw material and steam it in 200 ml. of boiled water for quarter of an hour. The filtered liquid is to eat inside a 50 ml. three times a day. The same way you can prepare a healing solution of chamomile blossoms, St. John’s wort, Valerian;
- fir oil. Daily massaging of essential oils into the affected area accelerates the process of epithelialization;
- a compress of comfrey root. Herbal boil for 30 minutes, cool. The resulting mixture is pulverized, diluted with lard until the consistency of ointment, is treated with 2 p/day to the affected area.
To restore bone and cartilage structure, patients are recommended to stick to the diet.
In the diet should prevail fruits, greens, vegetables, dairy products, whole grains, fish.
Important! For active regeneration of the mucosa, formation of local immunity, relief of inflammation and pain relief prescribed physiotherapy – treatment with infrared rays, UHF-therapy, electrophoresis. The number of sessions varies from 5 to 12 for a single course.
The change of integrity of bone tissue of the nose is manifested by discomfort and pain, breathing process severe consequences – rhinitis, sinusitis.
The solution of the problem requires a doctor’s participation even with a slight deformation. How to treat a broken nose defines a qualified person on the basis of instrumental methods, severity and form of injury.