Cancer (tumour) of the pharynx: symptoms and treatment photo
How to recognize and cure cancer of the nasopharynx?
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a tumor of malignant character, place development which is the upper nasopharyngeal Department. Normally, the tumor manifests a variety of forms of squamous cell carcinoma. In the field of localization is the development of lymphoma — diseases of the nasopharynx, which is based on the lymph system.
In medical practice, nasopharyngeal carcinoma has the name of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Stages of the pathology and forms of occurrence of there are several. Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer depend on the stage of the disease.
The reasons for the development of carcinoma
The causal factors resulting in the disease may be developed, are bad habits:
- Smoking. As it is strange, but smokers remain at risk of malignant tumors ten times more. This is especially true of categories of people who have years of experience of the smoker and are dependent.
- The use of alcoholic beverages. With regard to alcohol abuse, the risk of cancer of the nasopharynx is increased if it happens all the time. Maxed is the use of vodka over 850 g per week.
Among the main reasons, in addition to the above, allocate permanent effects on the body of dust, gas and impurities which pass through the upper respiratory tract.
This is due can be quite harmful. It is manufacturing paints and cement mixture, as well as the pulp and paper industry.
However, oncologists as the primary reason emit harmful habits, and negative impact of chemical elements acts as additional.
Another factor that may influence the development of the disease is the papilloma virus, especially if it’s 16-th type. The spread of HPV occurs primarily by contact and in most cases has asymptomatic.
The development of nasopharyngeal cancer occurs most often in men aged 30-50 years. The highest morbidity rates are observed in France, Eastern Europe and India.
The stage of nasopharyngeal cancer
For the first stage of cancer is characterized by the absence of metastases and the integrity of the lymph nodes. Tumor a tumor is a place of their arrangement nasopharyngeal region.
The second stage is divided into:
- 2A, in which the spread of a cancerous tumor in the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx. Metastases also available.
- 2B, in which there is the germination of cancer in the region parapharyngeal space. Sometimes there is metastasis to 7 cm in length.
The third stage is diagnosed when the tumor invasion in cranial bone in the presence of metastases in the lymph nodes on the neck on both sides. The size of inflamed lymph nodes is 6 cm or more.
Stage four cancer has 3 podstawie:
- 4A is characterized by tumor invasion into the skull, the area of the infratemporal fossa, larynx, orbit and chewing muscles. In some cases there is cranial nerve and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes, the size of which can reach 6 cm.
- 4B. At this stage the size of a cancerous tumor may be different. It is noted the spread of metastasis in the supraclavicular fossa.
- 4C. Symptoms are similar to podstudio 4B, except that the number of affected lymph nodes some more.
Classification of nasopharyngeal cancer
According to the who classification, there are 3 varieties of malignant tumors in the nasopharynx:
- keratinizing squamous cell is the most aggressive and the most dangerous kind of cancer, if detected the treatment needs to begin immediately.
- squamous neorogovevayuschy — less hazardous type of cancer of the nasopharynx;
For all types of tumors malignancy treatment methods are largely similar.
Cancer of the nasopharynx has a code in ICD-10: C11 malignant neoplasm of nasopharynx.
Signs of nasopharyngeal cancer
In the early stages of the development of nasopharyngeal cancer occurs without symptoms. This stems from the fact that for medical assistance patients with advanced forms of cancer and in the later stages.
Anxiety symptoms that may indicate the development of nasopharyngeal cancer are:
- swollen lymph nodes located in the neck;
- a reduction in auditory perception;
- nasal congestion in one or both sides;
- recurrent bleeding;
- pain in the affected areas;
- the problems occur when the mouth is open;
- distortion of visual perception: the double vision and blurring of forms.
These symptoms may occur in benign forms.
To ascertain the presence of cancer or lack of cancer the specialist can only after the survey.
A timely appeal to the oncologist can be considered the key to good diagnostics.
As additional characteristics are the pronounced changes in the nasopharyngeal region, accompanied by inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes and increase their size, as seen in the photo. This can be attributed to the weakening of facial muscles, and numbness of the skin on the face.
Diagnosis of carcinoma
Examination of the nasopharyngeal region is carried out by means of indirect nasopharyngoscopy based on the use of special medical mirror and light.
With the same purpose can be used a fiberscope, which is a tube with a light source at the end. The introduction of the instrument through the nose or mouth. Suspicious areas are exposed to additional research: biopsy by histology and Cytology.
In many cases, there is a hidden disease that is not accompanied by external manifestations, and the tumor when it is located under the mucosa.
The above methods, including a detailed examination and questioning of patients, for accurate diagnosis is not enough.
Under this scenario it is advisable to use more advanced methods, among which are:
- X-ray examination of the chest allows to identify or exclude the presence of metastases in the lungs.
- Magnetic resonance or computed tomography is carried out to obtain accurate information on the presence and size of tumors, the place of their localization, shape of tumors, condition of lymph nodes and areas of metastasis.
- The method of PET study aimed to identify the cancerous lesion. Is to use of glucose isotopes. The substance is quickly absorbed cancer at the cellular level. The localization of cancer cells is determined by a special camera.
- Clinical analysis of blood is performed to determine the direct and indirect signs of the disease. With this study, you can judge the overall condition of the body.
- Aspiration puncture – a study of cellular material, allowing to carry out differential diagnostics. In this case we are talking about carcinoma or about the common infection.
- Staging of the tumour according to the international classification is the final stage of the survey, the purpose of which is to determine the stage and form of cancer.
Treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer
Treatment of carcinoma is developed in a strictly individual basis and only after carrying out of examination and diagnosis.
In this case we are talking about the following methods:
- Radiation therapy.
- Drug systemic chemotherapy.
- Surgery, which is extremely rare. To drastic measures resorted to in those cases when there exists development of metastasis after radiotherapy.
Most often radiation and chemotherapy are assigned at the same time.
Radiation therapy is one of the main ways of treatment of cancer of the nasopharynx. The method is based on the use of a beam of radiation to destroy cancer on a cellular level, slowing the growth of malignant tumors and stop metastasis.
In carcinoma of this type is irradiated nasopharyngeal region and neck, even if the lymph nodes are not enlarged in size. The dose and frequency of exposure determined depending on the degree of metastasis and the nature of the inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck.
The duration of the course remote gamma-therapy is 7 weeks of treatments 5 days a week. Sometimes the treatment is accompanied by the development of side effects: burns, blemishes, dryness in the mouth and the nasal cavity.
System-drug chemotherapy is the method aimed at the destruction of cancer cells and cease dividing.
In the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using 5-Fluorouracil, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Cisplatin and other drugs.
You should bear in mind that under the action of ordinary chemicals are destroyed cells and tissues. It is the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, blood cells and follicles.
Treatment by chemotherapy is often accompanied by side effects:
- patients hair fall out;
- there is a strong weakness, malaise;
- may experience nausea, accompanied by vomiting;
Chemotherapy negatively affects blood clotting. The intensity and nature of side effects depends on the duration of therapy. In most cases, after treatment such manifestations stop, the body gradually restored.
Accurate diagnosis can prevent cancer in the early stages. If you have been diagnosed with cancer, begin to heal, it should be as early as possible. With regard to the prevention of cancer of the nasopharynx, it implies quitting Smoking and alcohol abuse.
In some cases, it may be conducted vaccination is directed against HPV. You should bear in mind that the highest percentage of survival after treatment observed at the early detection of cancer.