A bloody nose in a child: causes
In children often goes a nosebleed. This is due to the soft mucosa of the nose and the fragility of the vascular walls. Most often, nosebleeds are rare and minor, quickly stop. However, regularly repeated and copious bleeding from the nose in a child may indicate serious pathology.
Why do children often bleeding from the nose?
Often, nasal bleeding in children occurs due to:
- injury to the nasal mucosa — occurs when the child hit his nose (not necessarily much), scratched secretion in the nose, put a small object (mosaic, detail designer) in the nasal passages;
- maladaptive psychological reactions during prolonged hysterical crying and hysterics of the baby increases pressure in the blood vessels and ruptures the weakest of the choroid plexus of Kisselbach in the nose;
- fatigue — the active games and the high mobility of the child often ends the fact that baby’s nose is running blood;
- climatic factors — overheating in the sun (there are often bleeding at night), dry air (especially in winter when the heating is on) and finding in the cold often cause nasal bleeding.
- pressure changes during air travel, riding the carousel (Ferris wheel) and the drive up the mountain parents should include the risk of epistaxis in children;
- climate change — a trip to the sea was also fraught with nasal bleeding, continuing even after returning home.
Such nosebleeds are not dangerous, because the scant flow of blood stops for a few minutes. More serious reasons:
- viral/bacterial infection — swelling and inflammation of the nasal mucosa, combined with increased fragility of blood vessels, often provoke bleeding from the nose, thus aggravates the situation of high temperature;
- rhinitis when rhinitis infectious or allergic nature even sneezing can cause the rupture of blood vessels in the nose;
- Aspirin and Ibuprofen for the flu — these drugs can further weaken the walls of blood vessels, already quite fragile in viral diseases;
- frequent use of drops (Galazolin, having tried Nasivin, etc.) — prolonged or frequently repeated instillation of vasoconstrictor drugs activates atrophic processes in the mucosa of the nose, thereby causing bleeding;
- developmental abnormalities of the nasal passages — a defect of the nasal septum (congenital or post traumatic) leads to a narrowing of the nasal passages, often accompanied by repeated bleeding;
- premenstrual period in teenage girls — short provokes nosebleeds;
- hypovitaminosis — lack of vitamins (especially a lack of Vit. C) and the immunodeficiency in the spring seasonal appear epistaxis;
- polyps in the nose, sinusitis is the swelling of the mucosa and frequently blowing your nose often lead to the rupture of nasal vessels;
- vegetative-vascular dystonia, childhood neuroses — psychological discomfort even without obvious external reactions (sullen teenager with inner feelings) sometimes manifested by sweating and trembling of the hands, bleeding of the nose;
- inhalation of the cocaine — if a teenager regularly nose bleed, should be deleted and a serious problem.
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Dangerous disease, a symptom of which are the nosebleeds:
- leukemia and leukemia;
- thrombocytopenic purpura;
- severe anemia;
- hepatitis/cirrhosis of the liver;
- severe allergic reactions;
- nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Almost all these diseases are associated with disorders of blood coagulation. Have a sick child blood from a nose flows very often, often running stream. Duration of increased bleeding, it is difficult to stop. At the same time suffering and the General condition of the child: on the background of General symptoms (weakness, sweating, hyperthermia, etc.) are specific symptoms characteristic of a specific disease.
When you need qualified medical help?
If the child has epistaxis occurred for the first time, and the volume of blood lost does not exceed a few ml (blood dripping from his nose), you should not panic. This condition is easy to correct yourself. Remember: a few drops of blood on the pillow (bleeding occurred during sleep), occurred only 1 time, though not the norm, but is not considered a pathological condition that requires immediate medical care. Appeal to the doctor necessarily:
- if nosebleeds are recurrent, especially in children up to 5 years;
- if it is impossible to stop a nosebleed for 20 minutes;
- with abundant and breakthrough bleeding (300 ml) — pale skin, confusion, fainting and, in these cases the baby must be quickly delivered to the clinic.
What to do?
- Soothe your baby to sit on his hands. Prerequisite — the baby stopped crying and screaming.
- It is impossible to hold your child’s head back, put him to bed. In this position the blood will flow into the throat, which can cause vomiting and external bleeding will not indicate the actual volume of blood lost.
- The optimal position — the baby sits on an adult, who tilts his head a little forward.
- To unbutton the top two buttons on his shirt, open the window for entering the premises of fresh air. If the child is on the street, be sure to include it in the shade.
- In the form of games offer the kid inhale deeply with your nose and exhale through your mouth.
- On the nose to put the available cold objects, ice, wet rag, ice cream, a bottle of lemonade/water from the fridge. At home to the legs of the child put a hot water bottle. This measure promotes the flow of blood in the lower part of the body and minimizes the blood loss.
- A valid instillation of vasoconstrictive drops in strict accordance with the age dosage.
- An effective measure is to introduce in the bleeding nostril with a cotton swab dipped in hydrogen peroxide. The drug can ask the drivers in the shop (must have kit).
- After tamponade is a little to compress the nose with your fingers.
If these measures are not effective and bleeding continues for more than 20 min, you need to call an ambulance. Emergency call is also required if, at all events the blood from the nose went even stronger.
Treatment tactics is based on data from diagnostic studies. Usually sufficient for vessels of therapy: during the month a child is prescribed vitamin C and Ascorutinum. Also important is nutrition of the baby. When frequently occurring bleeding prizhivayutsya damaged vessels with silver nitrate or trichloroacetic acid. Appropriate to the conduct cryoablation (absolutely painless freezing with liquid nitrogen), laser therapy and electrocoagulation. These procedures do not require hospitalization. When massive bleeding is an urgent ligation of the bleeding vessel with subsequent treatment of the causes of epistaxis.
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