Abdominal aortic aneurysm: symptoms

The aorta, like all other vessels are able to dilate and shrink. A sharp narrowing called stenosis. Call aneurysm expansion or bulging of the aortic wall outside. This is due to the actions of certain pathologies that reduce the strength and elasticity of the vessel.

The diagnosis of «aneurysm of the abdominal aorta» is based on a formula that determines what kind of vessel diameter is a threshold. This formula includes such factors as the patient’s age, physiological features, obesity, total body surface area, and the ratio between non-pathological and the advanced sections of the aorta. As the primary minimum is considered to be the diameter of 3 cm (from back forward) — when this threshold is reached, it is possible to judge the development of the aneurysm.

Most often the disease occurs among older people. The results of studies BOAZ, every twentieth representative of the category «over 65 years» diagnosed an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

Reasons

Most often aortic aneurysm in the abdomen — a phenomenon purchased. The most significant in terms of the etiology of atherosclerosis is considered to be (almost 75% of cases it is the root cause of the disease). Factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms can be and inflammatory diseases: arteriit, rheumatism and other. Sometimes the cause are infectious disease (syphilis, Salmonella, tuberculosis).

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In rare cases, the aneurysm develops as a result of those or other diagnostic measures. We are talking about angiography — x-ray examination of blood vessels using contrast agents. Very rarely, an aortic aneurysm cause congenital factors, such as fibromuscular dysplasia (disease that causes, on the contrary, stenosis of medium or small arteries).

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Manifestations of the disease

Often an abdominal aortic aneurysm are asymptomatic, as the person does not feel the expansion of blood vessels. If symptoms do occur, they often manifest on the part of the gastrointestinal tract. This is due to the squeezing of certain parts of the digestive system (the renal vein on the left side, peripheral nerves, duodenum) due to the swelling of the vessel. The main manifestation of this pathology of the abdominal cavity include:

  • the emergence of a sense of pulsation and tumors in the abdomen;
  • problems with appetite, most of all his absence;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • belching;
  • unstable stool, followed, increasingly, constipation;
  • pain in the abdomen;
  • heaviness in the loins;
  • problems with urination (as its acceleration, and drawback);
  • pallor and coldness to the touch (rare — thrombosis of the vessels because of the transfer of blood clots from the abdominal aorta).

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We should look closer at the problem of abdominal pain. These feelings may be of a different nature. Most often, pain is quite strong and sharp, in some cases, the condition of the patient even requires the use of analgesics (painkillers). Sometimes it feels constant and dull. With the appearance of lower back pain the person feels difficulty or even pain during walking, you may experience chills. In some cases the pain radiates (gives off) in the lower extremity.

What is the rupture of the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta?

All aneurysms prone to rupture, but enlargement of the abdominal aorta are more prone to this complication. This is due to the anatomical features of vessels. Particularly important in the forecast for the development of aneurysm plays the place that gets the blood. Most often, the rupture is localized in the retroperitoneal space, but can also occur in the intestines, inferior Vena cava, abdominal cavity, etc. At rupture in the retroperitoneal cavity of the person feels a constant pain in the abdomen or lower back. When you develop a large, tense hematoma compressed the nerve trunks and plexuses. This causes very painful and unremitting pain.

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The rupture of an aneurysm of the aorta in the abdomen has a more severe manifestations. Fast growing symptoms of internal bleeding and hemorrhagic shock (a condition when large blood loss in the body). The patient is very pale and covered with cold sweat, marked abdominal distension and tenderness. You should feel the pulse — it is a frequent and thready. During this type of complications, death occurs very quickly.

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Rupture of the aneurysm into the inferior Vena cava accompanied by shortness of breath, palpitations and weakness of the patient. As in the case of localization in the retroperitoneal cavity, marked pain in the abdomen and lower back. Palpable pulsating tumor with systolo-diastolic noise in the area above him. Lower torso and legs are swollen. Manifestations occur slowly, but constantly progressing and dangerous development of acute heart failure.

Rupture into the duodenum is similar in symptoms to gastrointestinal bleeding. Plummets blood pressure, the patient vomiting blood, stool also characterized by black color, that speaks about presence in it of blood.

The complexity of all these pathologies is that the symptoms they may resemble other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and time for a thorough examination usually is not, after all, the state of emergency. To diagnose and identify the aneurysm is difficult, even a qualified specialist. Logically, to examine and prescribe treatment to the patient needs only a physician, otherwise an emergency medical condition can lead to death.