Acute leukemia in children: symptoms
Children’s Onco-Hematology is an area that requires timely and efficient approach to diagnosis. It is known that to help with funding for overseas treatment, the state can only be the case if the institution has provided a written statement that to cure in Russia, this case is impossible.
But the queue for transplantation at this institution bone marrow can be painted in the next six months, while death was first eligible to register the child may occur after 3 to 4 months. Therefore, such certificates are not issued, but the child may not survive. Timely diagnosis is very important, it gives you time to search for alternative possibilities. As can be suspected with acute leukemia in a child?
As you know, in adults and in children there can be various variants of acute leukemia: lymphoblastic and myeloblastic. Under other equal conditions, proper treatment and timely detection – the children have great chances to overcome the period five-year survival rate than adults. It is known that all the signs are grouped into the following syndromes:
- anemia caused by lack of red blood cells;
- hemorrhagic, caused by a deficiency of platelets;
- infectious lesions of the syndrome develops as a result of the inferiority of the immune defense;
- syndrome of intoxication.
What symptoms should alert parents, and how these syndromes manifest themselves the child?
- Signs of intoxication: weakness, lethargy, loss of appetite, poor sleep.
- Symptoms of anemia: decrease of tolerance to physical loads, pallor, weakness, dyspnea during exercise.
- The appearance of ulcers and bleeding gums, tonsils in the mouth. They are the result of leukocyte infiltration of the mucous membranes. Sometimes you see subcutaneous accumulation of leukemic blasts, resembling a rash.
- In case of damage to the Central nervous system occurs diffuse headache. The kids may be vomiting, unsteadiness when walking, impaired muscle tone, blurred vision.
- Children due to active functioning of the thymus gland (thymus) may increase due to the infiltration of cells in lymphoblastic leukemia. This leads to such symptoms as a sensation of pressure behind the breastbone, shortness of breath, chest pain and difficulty swallowing. Sometimes the thymus causes compression of the superior Vena cava. The result is obstruction of the outflow of venous blood from the upper half of the torso with cyanotic, with edema and blue discoloration of the head and neck.
- In leukemia, particularly lymphoblastic, lymphadenopathy frequently occurs, that is, the increase in regional (inguinal, cervical, axillary, submandibular) lymph nodes. They are enlarged, mobile and painless or slightly painful.
- Parents should be alerted constant and fairly severe course of various infections, primarily bacterial: sore throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, rhinitis, pustular lesions and other infectious diseases. These illnesses are treated seriously, and often unsuccessfully, passing into the chronic form.
- Often show signs of various bleeding as the result of a deficiency of platelets. There is often petechial-macular type. Given the active lifestyle of the child, the frequent occurrence of bruises in varying degrees of bloom, subcutaneous petechial hemorrhages, hemorrhages in the sclera, the occurrence of more prolonged bleeding with cuts and abrasions should alert parents.
- Children often have pains and aches in bones and joints. Cells that are produced in red bone marrow, accumulate not only under the skin and on the mucous membranes. There are so many that they begin to accumulate under the periosteum and in the cavities of the joints. Of course, the children do not complain of pain in the bones, they report pain in the hands and feet.
- Excessive destruction of immature blasts in the liver and spleen leads to increase in these organs. As a result of hepatosplenomegaly may occur asymmetric bloating.
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These symptoms (if they are visible all or most of them) quite eloquently about critical system process. But one symptom for attentive parents should be enough to take at least one General blood. This simple analysis can significantly speed up the diagnosis of leukemia, sometimes giving a few months to find the necessary treatment.