Anemia in an infant. The symptoms and treatment in children
Anemia is one of the most relevant and topical issues in pediatric practice. Sometimes called anemia. What is it? The common medical term “anemia” integrates a variety of origins and course of the pathological process accompanied by decrease in red blood cells and therefore haemoglobin in the blood.
Anemia in an infant
Anaemia in infants is diagnosed quite often, and the kid younger, the higher the risk of its development. This is due to the functional immaturity of the apparatus of hematopoiesis and a high vulnerability function of hematopoiesis child. Even the most seemingly insignificant and skoroprechodaschie traumatic factors (such as non-age-power, violation of hygiene requirements and infection) can trigger a child’s anemia.
Disorders of haematopoiesis in children (in particular, anemia in children under one year) often have a disturbing tendency to acquire traits of embryonic type, prone to myeloid and lymphoid hematopoietic tissue metaplasia. The positive is the ability of the apparatus of hematopoiesis to the complete heal itself with the elimination of the causes of anemia.
The types of anemia
Distinguish anemia endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous is anemia hemolytic origin.
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- This, for example, hemolytic anemia of the newborn caused by group and respratory incompatibility between fetus and mother.
- To endogenous include so-called anemia Minkowski-of’s in which hereditary congenital instability of erythrocytes leads to the development of hemolytic crises.
- The acute anaemia of Lederer, is also hemolytic, resulting from autoimmunization of an organism of the child to a private erythrocytic cells is much rarer.
- To endogenous anemia include anemia, which is caused by abnormality of hemoglobin synthesis. Is thalassemia, sickle cell, aregenerative and aplastic anemia.
Exogenous same origin are common in pediatric practice of nutritional anemia.
- They are characteristic mainly for infants.
- Arise from the monotony of milk-feeding and is caused by deficiency in him of a number of amino acids, essential in the synthesis of the protein component of hemoglobin. Defect of synthesis of the hemoglobin molecule leads to the inability of the child’s body to be disposed of serum iron.
- In addition, the occurrence of nutritional anaemia depends on the lack in the child’s In-group vitamins and essential minerals such as magnesium, copper and cobalt.
- Children five months of age are causes of anemia with depletion of endogenous innate reserves of iron obtained from the mother at birth.
Allocate anemia of prematurity, it is hyporegenerative anemia. In this case, the signs of the disease appear after a month after birth. The immediate causes of disease lie in the functional imperfection of the bone marrow of a premature baby. Encourage the development of anemia factors are inconsistent, the rules of care and malnutrition. Anemia in premature infants differs recurrent nature and long duration.
The degree of anemia
The norm recognized by the following figures of hemoglobin Hb children:
- from birth to the end of the first days of life – no less than 145 grams per liter;
- in the first 2 weeks – 130 g/l;
- in the next 2 weeks – 120 g/l;
- up to 6 years 110 g/l;
- after 6 years – more than 110 g/l.
In accordance with the value of gipogemoglobinemia differencebut anemia:
- 1 degree – Hb greater than 90 g/l;
- 2 degrees – Hb can drop to 70 g/l;
- 3 degrees – Hb below 70 g/L.
Early stage disease clinically erased and visually no symptoms. Diagnosis is feasible only in a laboratory study of blood. The result of analysis of the drop in the level of hemoglobin becomes the first sign of confirming the pathology. With the increasing shortage of hemoglobin in the body of the child appear the outward signs. Most often, anemia is seen in:
- General weakness;
- poor sleep, anxiety, moodiness;
- pallor of skin and mucous membranes;
- cracks in the corners of the lips;
- fragility of nails;
- hair loss and poor hair growth;
- lack of appetite;
- rapid regurgitation;
- insufficient weight gain;
- often acute infections;
- dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract;
- a delay of psychophysical development.
How to treat anemia
Therapy of anemia should be comprehensive. First of all, we should not forget about the General therapeutic activities that increase the level of reactivity of child’s organism and the stimulation of its ability to heal itself.
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- Requires special attention to the diet of a sick child.
- Diet to be high in calories, full in respect of vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. In the treatment of anemias 1-St and 2-nd degree daily calorie food increase by 10 – 12%. But anemia is a 3-th degree in the initial stages of treatment daily calorie reduced by 20% with the exception of fats.
- Menu must include dishes and foods rich in iron and rich in vitamins. It can be eggs, dishes of the liver and meat, fresh cheese. Useful strawberries, beets and apples.
- In addition to the rationalization of power, important in the prevention of infection, should establish a strict hygienic regime of baby care.
- Need to conduct more of geroprotector and massage, energizing exercises, allow time for insolation and air baths.
The choice of drugs depends primarily on the reason the child developed anaemia.
- All children are appointed vitamins B1 and B2, a course of fish oil and ascorbic acid.
- Important vitamins in the treatment is Cyanocobalamin.
- In the treatment of anaemia with decreasing colour index preparations of iron.
- Threatening lowering of blood the number of erythrocytes is an indication for the assignment of a 1% solution of copper sulfate.
- Severe anemia is treated/V chemoinfusion: 15,0 – 50,0 children under 3 years; 80,0 – 120,0 – older than 3 years.
- Aplastic and haemolytic forms of anemia require inclusion in the scheme of drug hormonal agents Dexamethasone, Prednisolone etc.