Anemia: what it is, signs, types, consequences, photos
Anemia (anemia) is called a clinical condition in which the patient reveals decreased concentration of hemoglobin and the number of gematokritnogo in the blood. In most cases this is also accompanied by erythropenia — decrease in the number of red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin and hematocrit: what is it?
For understanding what happens when the reduced hemoglobin concentration, it is necessary to know what constitutes this substance. Hemoglobin refers to a special protein that contains iron. Its peculiarity is that it is reversible is combined with oxygen or carbon dioxide. This connection enables the transfer of these gases in the tissues, providing a «breathing» organs. The normal hemoglobin for men, women and children – are different:
- for the stronger sex — 130 – 160 g/l (considered a minimum of 120 g/l);
- for women — 120 – 140 g/l;
- Newborns — 145 – 225 g/l;
- In children up to six months — 95 – 135 g/L.
In children by the age of 18 the protein concentration in the blood increases and becomes the same as in adults. Hematocrite number shows the percentage ratio of shaped blood cells (usually only red blood cells, as they constitute 99% of the total) to the total volume of blood. Normal hematocrit — 39% of men and 36% women.
Anemia – what kind of disease?
Very often, anaemia is not a separate disease, but a symptom of other diseases or physiological phenomenon, that is, may occur as a secondary problem. For example, in people who are malnourished, often sit on diets and doing exhausting workouts, the hemoglobin concentration will always be lower is not considered a deviation.
Hypertension no longer a death sentence?
The cardiologist said that there is finally a cure for hypertension …
Noted that every 5 – 10 people diagnosed anemia. This problem most commonly occurs in women because of the cuts in supply. More often manifested iron deficiency anemia (90% of cases), less common problem is the lack of vitamin B12, folic acid, etc. In some cases, anemia has problems with the identification of origin. Often, anemia is diagnosed in preterm infants and women after birth.
Types of anemia
Macrocytic anemia is accompanied by an increase in the average size of red blood cells that is the hallmark of this disease. The main cause of disease — a lack of folic acid or vitamin B12, which in turn can be caused by imbalanced nutrition, diseases of the digestive tract and problems with the formation of formed elements.
Acute posthemorrhagic anemia occurs most often after large loss of blood. The chronic form of the disease is more characteristic for a gentle but prolonged bleeding. Post-hemorrhagic anemia, as well as the complexity of their flow depend on the strength and duration of blood loss.
Hemolytic anemia associated with hemolysis (destruction) of red blood cells directly in the bloodstream, when the norm is happening in the liver or the spleen. The disease is most often caused by intoxication, poisoning poisons, exposure to low temperatures. In some cases the cause is hereditary or autoimmune disease.
Deficiency anemia the most common in patients and are associated with other abnormalities or with malnutrition. Patients with this problem carefully painted diet, eliminate the cause of the lack of iron, folic acid or vitamin B12, prescribe restorative drugs and vitamins.
Anemia of Addison-Barmera (its old name is pernicious, or pernicious anemia) is B12 deficiency anemia. Pathology, usually caused by a violation of hematopoiesis caused by deficiency of vitamin B12. The disease is more common in older people over 60 years of age, although it occurs in young children up to 10 years.
Anaemia in pregnant women is often scarce and is also developing in case of iron deficiency. Normal in the first weeks of life the baby receives a large quantity of this chemical element from the mother for the formation of their blood cells. If a woman does not revise your diet after pregnancy, start taking vitamins and iron supplements, its body is quickly exhausted. If a pregnant concentration of hemoglobin less than 110 g/l, the absorption of oxygen by the blood becomes worse, so severe anemia develops not only the mother but also the baby. To prevent this condition, it is necessary to take 30 mg of iron daily.
Doctors believed that I had cured the hypertension!
«Hypertension is not a death sentence. Just need to take care of myself» — the blog of actor Oleg Tabakov.
Sideroahrestical (sideroblastnaya) kind of anemia is characterized by the fact that when there is a lack of iron. The basis of pathology lies a complex process, which interferes with the process of formation of heme, a substance that is part of hemoglobin.
Myelodysplastic syndrome is a group of pathologies, among which are 5 varieties. They are changes in the blood. One kind is refractory anemia. The problem of this pathology is that it has only recently started to acquire asimptomaticescoe treatment.
What are the causes? Most often, myelodysplastic syndrome — the phenomenon is primary, and only in 10% of cases develops after chemotherapy, and other factors. For the disease characterized by severe, only 60% of patients live 5 years after registration of the syndrome. Very often, myelodysplastic syndrome causes of leukemia (the so-called blood cancer).
The diamond-Blackfan anemia is hereditary and is transmitted autosomal recessive. It is equally common in boys and in girls. The mechanism of development of pathology is quite complicated, but most professionals link the disease with the anomaly of the precursors of red blood cells, with a defect in their microenvironment in the place of formation — red bone marrow, with presence of humoral substances that slow down or prevent the formation of red blood cells.
Aplastic anemia is a rare pathology, occurring only in 5 cases per million patients. It is the problem of the development of formed elements of blood bone marrow in the right quantity.
Also anemia klassificeret depending on the severity of his symptoms. Anemia 1 degree (mild) is characterized by a slight decrease in hemoglobin concentration (above 90 g/l). While clinical manifestations may not be, in this case, the patient generally recovered. With anemia 2 (medium) degree the amount of hemoglobin is 70 to 90 g/l, 3 (severe) extent, up to 70 g/L.
Differential diagnosis different types of anaemia
The first thing you need to do to define the specific varieties of anemia is to consult a qualified physician. Only a specialist will be able to appoint the General analysis of blood (core laboratory diagnosis of disease) and correctly decode it. Furthermore, it is essential to collect anamnesis of disease and life of patient, to assess the probability of occurrence of anemia due to diseases that already have patient.
It is important that the blood test not only determined the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrite number, but indicated a number of other formed elements, the average volume of red blood cells, the width of their distribution in volume, the average content and concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes.
Any other methods of examination are usually appointed by the patient for a more detailed explanation of the causes of anemia, the mechanism of its development, presence of comorbidities, etc. In any case, diagnosis should be carefully considered by the attending physician.
Common to all types of signs of anemia
The symptoms of this phenomenon in General similar for all species pathology. In some cases, signs may not be. But the most characteristic manifestations of anemia are:
- fatigue, weakness, decrease or loss of performance;
- dizziness and headaches;
- noise in the ears;
- the pica (pathological «addiction» to chalk, wood, etc., where there is a desire to chew or even any);
- hair loss, problems with nails and teeth;
- flies flashing before the eyes, ringing in the ears;
- strong palpitations and the feeling of his work by the patient;
- muscle weakness;
- body aches;
- the occurrence of shortness of breath and feeling short of breath even with slight exertion.
How to treat anemia?
The question of how to treat anemia at home often occurs in patients with primary form of the disease. We can say that it does not even need therapy folk remedies, will be sufficient to reconsider your diet, add more foods containing vitamin B12 and iron (e.g., protein meals). Will have a good impact on the health of green vegetables, lettuce, greens, and grains. It is necessary to abandon caffeine, tea, chocolate and sweets.
It should be remembered that anaemia worsens the General condition of the body, sometimes even affects the internal organs. It is therefore not necessary to rely only on themselves, it is better to consult a doctor about treatment of anemia.
Treatment of anaemia depends on the cause. If the patient has one of the types of deficiency anemia, the drugs with high iron content and vitamins. When a large blood loss, when the problem is recently performed surgery (including plastic), injuries and other reasons, it is recommended a blood transfusion. In children anemia can cause worms are, then prescribe anti-parasitic medicines. The decision about what methods will be used for the treatment of disease, should only take a doctor.
What are the consequences of anemia?
Consequences of anemia can be severe enough in some cases speech can go even about the deaths. Most often anemia causes the following problems:
- decrease in immunity and, as a consequence, frequent acute respiratory diseases;
- the appearance of neurological disorders, and even deformations of nervous system;
- swelling of the feet;
- enlargement of the liver and spleen;
- pathology of heart and vessels, etc.
Well-timed treatment will help to prevent all these consequences. So see your doctor and be sure of your health condition!