Anemia: what it is, symptoms and treatment
Anemia is one of the names of anemia – the condition, accompanied by a decrease in blood hemoglobin concentration. Suffer from anemia, people of all ages, while they have weakness, dizziness, pale skin, shortness of breath and other signs indicate that the body lacks oxygen, because the hemoglobin is less than normal and it cannot transport oxygen to the tissues.
Consider what is anemia and what are its causes. Anemia can be an independent disease or a symptom of other conditions – bleeding, blood cancer, autoimmune diseases and other ailments. Diagnosis of anemia is blood. Normal amount of hemoglobin in people of different ages differs. For example, in adult men haemoglobin below 130 g/l can be regarded as a sign of anemia in women anemia indicates a reading below 120 g/l, and in children after one year and in pregnant women is 110 g/L.
For anemia there are a large number of etiological factors:
- The most basic is an unbalanced diet, which does not cover the body’s need for iron, animal proteins and some vitamins. Potentially dangerous in terms of anemia is malnutrition, vegetarianism, various mono and feeding young children cow’s milk and the later introduction into their diet of meat foods.
- Acute and chronic bleeding.
- Helminthic infestation.
- Severe disease, debilitating body.
- The leukemias.
- Autoimmune disease and other factors.
Types of anemia
Depending on the mechanism of anemia are:
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- Iron deficiency arising from the lack of iron in the body (this is a macronutrient required for the synthesis of hemoglobin).
- Hemorrhagic, due to bleeding developing. Not necessarily the bleeding should be copious, long slight discharge of blood through the intestines or sexual organs can also lead to anemia.
- Hemolytic appearing in the hemolysis of red blood cells, which can be due to autoimmune processes, mechanical damage to blood cells, exposure to toxic substances, irregular shape of red blood cells and other reasons.
- Disembodies associated with impaired hematopoiesis.
- B12 and polyesterine (the name speaks for itself – this anemia are due to insufficient intake of these vitamins).
Isolated anemia in pregnant women, which has iron-deficiency in nature. With the increase in pregnancy volumes of wastes of the iron reserves on the formation of the placenta and fetus significantly increased, so if a woman does not increase the amount of this macronutrient in your diet, anemia. Severity (depending on the concentration of hemoglobin) anemia is:
- The lungs, when hemoglobin is less than normal, but more than 90 g/l.
- Medium gravity, when this figure falls to 70 g/L.
- Heavy when hemoglobin becomes less than 70 g/l Critical (deadly) is the measure of below 50 g/L.
In addition, there are classifications that take into account the value of the color index of blood, the shape and size of erythrocytes, the ability of bone marrow to regenerate.
Symptoms of anemia
Suspect the anemia can be by the following symptoms:
- Fatigue and weakness.
- Reduced performance and concentration.
- The shortness of breath.
- Noise in the ears.
- Pallor of the skin (hemolytic anemia – yellowing).
- Brittle nails and hair.
- The cracks on the lips.
- Digestive disorders.
Anemia often occurs without any symptoms and is detected incidentally during preventive examinations in clinical analysis of blood
How to treat anemia?
Tactics of treatment depends on the type of anemia. Anemia caused by iron deficiency, take the following therapeutic measures:
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- Diet. It should be sufficient to contain the animal protein, iron, ascorbic and folic acid, and vitamin B12. If mild anemia to normalize blood is only enough correction power.
- Iron preparations, which depending on the severity of the patient administered orally (through the mouth) or parenterally.
During heavy bleeding treatment of anemia is transfusion of blood products, while improving the patient’s condition – prescribing, containing iron. In addition, it is very important to do everything to stop the bleeding, that is, to establish the cause and eliminate it.
For the treatment of hemolytic anemia have adopted various methods of blood purification (in the destruction of hemoglobin in the body increases the concentration of toxic bilirubin), and drugs capable of preventing hemolysis. Depending on the causes of hemolysis can be immunosuppressants, antidotes of chemicals and hormones. In some types of hemolytic anemia performed even the removal of the spleen. If the reason for anemia has become a malignant process in the bone marrow, require special chemotherapy and stem cell transplant.
How to prevent anemia?
The main preventive measure is a balanced diet. It is especially important to watch the diet women because of every month (during menstruation), their body loses blood, and if bleeding abundant, it can develop anemia. In addition, dietary prevention of anemia is very necessary for future mothers, they should eat more meat, vegetables and fruit rich in iron and vitamins. For children the best prevention of anemia is breast milk, and after 6 months – meat, vegetable and fruit dishes as a mandatory component of the diet.