Atherogenic coefficient increased or decreased: what it is, causes
To determine the risk of atherosclerosis and complications of this disease, doctors use analysis, which helps determine the ratio of lipid fractions – the so-called atherogenic coefficient. For each person it can be different and depends on nutrition, lifestyle, the patient’s weight, physical activity and presence of comorbidities. In any case, to know this figure you need to have the ability in time to prevent serious consequences of atherosclerosis.
Lipid profile and atherogenic coefficient (KA). What is it?
Fats entering the body with food, dissolve in the gastrointestinal tract to fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are absorbed into cells and used as building material for membranes. Glycerin is transferred by blood flow to the liver, where the metabolism is converted to lipoproteins (a complex of proteins and lipids), high-density (HDL) and low density (LDL). LDL is the fraction that goes directly to the cage, and HDL removes excess LDL and helps to eliminate them from the body.
The normal ratio of these fractions allows to provide cells with the necessary amount of lipids, and the excess be eliminated from the body. In violation of lipid metabolism, when LDL exceeds the norm, and not enough HDL, the deposition of «bad» fatty acids on the walls of blood vessels to form atherosclerotic plaques. The vessels gradually decrease in diameter, blood to the tissues for them comes less atherosclerosis and its consequences – heart attack, stroke and thrombosis.
How to calculate KA? What is?
This figure is reflected in lipidogramu, which also reflects the amount of total cholesterol, percent LDL and HDL, triglycerides. Atherogenic coefficient is the ratio between the fraction of «good» and «bad» cholesterol, which shows the risk of atherosclerosis. It is to determine this risk factor should be used. Changing the ratio of fractions in the well-being of the patient is not affected, so it is very important to determine the onset of atherosclerosis to prevent its complications.
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When assigned to the analysis?
- For prophylactic examinations to determine the likelihood of developing diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
- With the aim of controlling cholesterol level in the blood of patients who take drugs that reduce the amount of lipids or follow a diet that restricts fats.
- Patients with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (Smoking, overweight, hypertension, diabetes, physical inactivity, heart attack or stroke a history of excessive consumption of saturated lipoproteins).
- The patients whose relatives a history of myocardial infarction or stroke.
What to do if elevated atherogenic coefficient?
Normally, this figure should be of 2.5 – 3.5 mmol/l in people with a tendency to develop cardiovascular diseases, the rate of this indicator may increase to 4 mmol/L. For a more precise diagnosis of these diseases is necessary to assess the level of LDL. The reasons for this elevated ratio:
- Errors in the diet (abuse of animal fats). Such fats raise the LDL and, accordingly, the value of the coefficient of atherogenicity. Such fats are found in red meat (diet allows him to eat no more than 5 times per month), fried food, mayonnaise and fast food. Fatty meat you can substitute fatty meat fish (tuna, salmon, mackerel). Although it is too fatty foods, but it contains beneficial lipids (unsaturated fatty acids omega-3). In addition, in food (soups, salads) you can add walnuts, flax seeds and olive oil.
- Atherosclerosis – disease of blood vessels that occurs as a result of the higher level of fraction of «bad» lipids and results in the deposition of excess of fat on the walls of blood vessels. The increase in the number of «bad» fats (LDL) in the blood is reflected in the increase of atherogenic coefficient.
- Diabetes. The rise in blood sugar gradually cause damage to the blood vessels. As a result, the injury site tend platelets and calcium ions, this plot becomes slightly protruding into the lumen of the vessel. After a time, the molecules of lipoproteins, clinging to this site, are deposited on the wall of the vessel forming atherosclerotic plaque.
Causes physiological enhancement of the atherogenic coefficient:
- Pregnancy and first 6 weeks of the postpartum period.
- Fasting (decrease of proteins and fats from food).
- Reception of anabolic steroids, hormones.
- Alcohol intake before the study.
If the coefficient of AI is lowered, it is a good indicator of the clinical value it has.
Treatment of high atherogenic coefficient
In order for this ratio was within or below the norm should be, first and foremost, change your lifestyle and diet. This will help to develop lipid metabolism in the body and to reduce high levels of «bad» lipoproteins. It is better to do before the development of atherosclerosis and other diseases of the heart and blood vessels.