Atherogenic coefficient: what is it, Norma
Currently, due to the success of clinical and experimental medicine, and laboratory diagnosis has become possible to predict different scenarios of development of events, given certain tests. Thanks to the great work, dozens conducted multicentre studies and statistical data processing from a position of evidence-based medicine has become possible to reliably predict the risk of various cardiovascular disease using atherogenic coefficient. What is the figure and how it is used?
It is known that the blood carries to organs and tissues nutrients: proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Blood fats are transported in the form of several fractions, which are available for research. So, in the biochemical analysis of blood defined:
- total cholesterol;
- high density lipoproteins, or HDL;
- low-density lipoproteins, or LDL,
- lipoproteins of very low density, or VLDL;
- triglycerides, or neutral fats.
What is it? This means that total cholesterol is actually there, it is just a quantitative expression of its constituent parts. When you boil the juice, you use waffles, sugar and water. The resulting product is called a compote. Similarly, the total cholesterol is simply the sum of its fractions. All these fractions are required for transportation and disposal of fats, but the degree of harm them. It is determined by heterogenety this fraction or the ability to participate actively in the formation of cholesterol plaques.
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We all know that excessive accumulation of these plaques in blood vessels leads to impaired blood flow, oxygen starvation of organs and tissues, blockage of the lumen of the vessels and development of atherosclerosis. All organs can be in the appropriate age to detect certain signs of atherosclerotic vascular lesions.
So, cerebral atherosclerosis can lead to pronounced personality changes, and various encephalopathy, sclerosis of the coronary vessels can lead to heart attack. Sclerosis of large cerebral arteries may result in different types of ischemic stroke. Because the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases is the first worldwide, and among these diseases are heart attacks and strokes again be among the leaders, it turns out that the degree of atherogenicity directly affects life expectancy.
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How to calculate the atherogenic index?
The easiest way is the guideline for total cholesterol in blood plasma. But the fact that the rate of cholesterol does not prove that its owner healthy blood vessels. The fact that among the fractions are both useful and harmful. Only high density lipoproteins are not able to be deposited on the vascular wall, in contrast to LDL and VLDL. For quantitative formula that would take into account the internal ratio of «good» and «bad» fractions in cholesterol, which clinics are doing without regard to its «inner content» of total cholesterol subtracted «nice» fraction («bad»), and then the result divided into «good» faction. The result is a number, expressing the ratio of «bad» factions to «good».
Graphically, the calculation formula is: KA = (total cholesterol – HDL)/HDL. This calculation is performed in the laboratory, but the physician or the patient himself can calculate it yourself. For this you just need to give the laboratory the task to quantify the lipid fraction of the patient.
Interpretation of results
The normal value of this index, from 2.5 to 3.5 units This means that excess «bad» factions over the «good» should not be above these values. Some laboratories give an even more rigorous evaluation – 3. If the atherogenic index is low, the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease, of course, available, but it will not exceed the average value for a given age of the patient population, and will be «planned».
Not much difference in the value of the index in men and in women not. The risk of atherosclerosis is higher in men, but this does not mean that they need to have different index values. This means that in practice the risk is much higher than that of the same age, but this is not good, and «favors» for men to do.
How to donate blood?
Before you reduce the value of the index, you need to donate blood and receive correct results. To do this, within 10 days try to stick to the usual power mode, the day of the test get a good nights sleep, and the day before not to smoke on an empty stomach and not to be nervous, which is difficult to do in our clinics. The day before the test do not drink alcohol, and before blood is better to sit in the hallway instead of standing vertically. All these «little things» can significantly change the ratio of the fractions in the analysis of venous blood, which can lead to false results.
To schedule this examination, do not need special occasions. In addition, we can compute this index. Its role in assessing the level of risk factors that must be considered for long-term treatment of atherosclerosis. In particular, check to be smokers, patients with coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, people with high cholesterol levels and people who have had a heart attack or stroke.
It is important to determine this index in patients with diabetes, obesity, in individuals with increased alcohol consumption and decreased physical activity. Recommendations for reducing the atherogenic index do not differ from recommendations about how to reduce cholesterol. A healthy diet, normalization of weight, quitting bad habits and an active lifestyle help to cope with excess cholesterol.
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