Blood ALT and AST: transcript
One of the highly informative methods of examination is the biochemical analysis of blood. It allows to detect various pathologies of the internal organs before the appearance of clinical symptoms of the disease. This article describes ALT and AST indicated that it is a performance, and as evidenced by the increase of their concentration.
What is AST?
This enzyme of protein metabolism. He is responsible for the synthesis of amino acids, which are part of different fabrics. So, most of the compounds contained in the cells of the myocardium, hepatocytes, and neurons, and in cells of skeletal muscle. Accordingly, when the destruction of these cells in the blood system plenty of AST, and recorded in the laboratory study.
For a correct evaluation of the obtained results should know the normal concentration of AST. As a rule, when determining the level of this enzyme labs indicate normal, because results may differ depending on the reagents used in the analysis. The accepted norm is 40 – 41 IU men, not more than 35 IU in women and up to 50 IU in children.
When you register an increase in the level of AST?
Repeatedly the increase in the concentration of AST found in the following cases:
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- acute infarction of the heart; on the dynamics of growth AST possible to draw conclusions regarding the extent of myocardial necrosis;
- any injury of the heart,
- inflammation of the myocardium of infectious or autoimmune etiology.
- viral hepatitis, acute or chronic;
- toxic liver disease, steatosis, damage of hepatocytes in the presence of alcoholism;
- General intoxication with infectious lesions of the internal organs;
- heart failure;
- cholestasis in the presence of mechanical obstacles to the normal outflow of bile (e.g., in the presence of stones, tumors or congenital anomalies);
- primary cancer of the liver or the metastases in the remote location of the tumor;
- myeloid leukemia, which occurs with damage to the heart and liver;
- massive destruction of muscle fibers (for example, muscular dystrophy or generalized myositis).
Meaning of ALT?
It is also a special enzyme (alanine aminotransferase), synthesis of which takes place in the cells, so blood find only a small amount of it. When cytolysis and tissue destruction observed a sharp increase in ALT. For the connection specified is not a characteristic organ specificity, as it contains kidney and liver (highest concentration), heart and skeletal muscle, spleen and pancreas and also in the lungs and erythrocytes.
Typically, the concentration of ALT is carried out for early diagnosis of pathologies of the liver before the appearance of obvious signs of disease. An indication for this analysis is also suspected hepatitis. Normal value of ALT in men less than 45 IU, women – not more than 34 IU. Among children the norm I think level 29 – 56 IU, depending on age.
If the patient reports weakness, nausea, abdominal discomfort and yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes should be required to do a blood test. ALT and AST in this match to determine the nature of lesions of hepatocytes. This ratio is called the de Ritis coefficient. Normal value of this ratio is 0.91 to 1.75. Its level is more than 2 indication of damage to heart cells (cardiomyocytes). In this case suggest the possibility of myocardial infarction. When the coefficient not more than 1 conclude that the liver (the lower the score, the worse I make predictions).
It should be noted that the concentration of ALT determined not only diagnostic purposes but also for quality control of the prescribed treatment. It is also prescribed to people who had contact with patients with hepatitis, and persons with diabetes, obesity, and alcohol dependence. As a rule, in the biochemical analysis of blood the increase of ALT register in the following cases:
- the plant-based drugs and antibiotics.
- the use of fast food, alcohol before analysis;
- muscle damage;
- emotional and physical stress;
- steatosis, which manifests as accumulation of fat cells in the liver that most often occurs in the presence of excess weight;
- lead poisoning;
- the psychological shock;
- taking drugs;
- the presence of a malignant tumor with the process of necrosis;
- sometimes ALT is increased in pregnant women, especially in the development of preeclampsia.
Features of preparation of blood for ALT and AST
These indicators can be increased by improper preparation of the blood. To obtain reliable results, it is recommended not to eat for 8 – 12 hours prior to the survey. It is also impossible to drink sweet soda water or taking any medications. The day before analysis, the patient is in your diet should restrict fried and overly salty foods, eliminate coffee, chocolate and alcoholic beverages. 30 minutes before blood is forbidden to smoke. It is also desirable to avoid physical and emotional stress, as this too can lead to false results.
Note that in cases where the patient is undergoing a course of intramuscular injections, make certain tabletting medication or dietary Supplements, the activity of ALT and AST is also growing. In addition, a temporary increase in transaminases can be observed in burn patients after massive injury of skeletal muscle, the presence of myositis, bone tumors, and pathologies, which are accompanied by breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis). With pancreatitis, after surgery on the abdominal cavity and gout ALT and AST are also higher than normal.
Decoding the received data must be carried out exclusively by the doctor who upon evaluation of the results will take into account all these nuances and will compare the obtained results with other laboratory parameters (e.g. bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, etc.).
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