Blood cancer: symptoms in men

The term «leukemia» (blood cancer or leukemia) understand the whole group of malignant diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth of blood cells. This article shows you how to manifest this pathology among men, why it occurs and how to treat.

Etiology and classification

The reason for the development of leukemia are mutations of bone marrow cells, in which instead of Mature white blood cells are formed cancer cells. Among males a pathological process is captured on 30% more often than women. Depending on what type of cell is transformed into a malignant form, distinguish lymphocytic leukemia (loss of lymphocytes) and myeloid leukemia (degeneration of the myelocytes). Much less register a malignant lesion of other types of leukocytes.

A characteristic feature of the disease is the acute form develops as a result of the transformation of blasts (immature cells). There are uncontrolled reproduction and strong growth. Chronic leukemias occur with progressive growth of an already Mature blood cells or cells that are in the growth phase. Given this feature, for acute leukemia is not typical of the transition in the chronic form, and in chronic course of the disease is not acute. Among the factors that can provoke an abnormal reproduction of blood cells, you need the following:

  • the effect of radiation and benzene;
  • Smoking;
  • down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities;
  • chemotherapy, which is carried out for other types of cancer;
  • heredity;
  • some medications (for example, leucosolenia properties are antibiotics, Phenylbutazone, Chloramphenicol);
  • infectious-viral diseases, especially HIV infection.

Clinic

Common symptoms of leukemia include the following violations:

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  • weakness and malaise, constant drowsiness, or, conversely, sleep disturbance;
  • lack of concentration, memory impairment;
  • expressed pallor of the skin, bruising under the eyes;
  • bleeding from the gums and nose;
  • damage to the skin and soft tissues heal poorly;
  • prolonged hyperthermia to 37.6 °C;
  • slight pain in the bones;
  • palpitations and sweating;
  • dizziness and loss of consciousness;
  • aggravation of existing chronic diseases;
  • more frequent colds;
  • lack of appetite and weight loss.

Mostly the disease develops gradually. The patients report weakness and joint pain, possible low-grade fever. With a sudden start showing signs of a sore throat and a hemorrhagic diathesis with significant hyperthermia. Clinic may resemble acute septicemia. In patients with progressive signs of anemia and ulcerative-necrotic changes in the mucosa of the mouth and throat. First, find manifestations of catarrhal angina, but in short time becomes necrotic. The pathological process can go on mucous membranes of the palate, the epiglottis or the trachea. There are also signs of ulcerative stomatitis.
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Appear on the skin bruising that is associated with impaired blood clotting. Hemorrhagic diathesis develops thrombocytopenia, and leukemic infiltration of the vascular wall. Patients are also concerned about nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, constant fatigue. Observed headaches and blurred vision, are becoming more frequent urination. When leukemia increased lymph nodes (most commonly in the neck and in the armpits). As a rule, they are painless. Register enlarged liver and spleen, which in turn provokes a feeling of heaviness in the upper quadrant.

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In the later stages of the disease register expressed abdominal pain, convulsions and loss of consciousness, lips and nails become bluish hue. Can also be heavy bleeding, heart pain, tachycardia and wheezing. Occur subperiosteal leukemic infiltrates, which leads to pain in the bones with a beating, especially in the sternum, that is called sternly.

In 10% of clinical cases of leukemia occurs in a tumor-like shape when in the early periods of the disease in the lymph nodes, lungs, skin and the retina of the eye see a sharp growth of leukemic foci. It is worth noting that the clinical course of blood cancer in men is identical with its manifestations among women. The only characteristic symptom is a unilateral seal egg, that you find already in the early stages of leukemia.

In addition, among men after the age of 50 years more often develops so-called hairy cell leukemia. It is manifested by a slow progression, but the clinical course is not different from other types of blood cancer. In General, patients go to the doctor in late stages of the disease, since minor symptoms they regard as age-related changes.

Forecast

Each type of blood cancer has a different prognosis, which depends on the total picture of the disease, peculiarities of its course and influence of confounding factors. Upon detection of the acute lymphoblastic leukemia conclude about the level of white blood cells. The greater their concentration, the less the chances for a positive conclusion of the disease.

When myeloid leukemia survival of patients is approximately 35% over the next 5 years after diagnosis. These prognostic data refer to patients aged up to 60 years. In older patients, the survival rate is much worse. So, after the age of 60 years during the next five years after the discovery of blood cancer live only 10% of patients. This is due to the so-called blast crisis, when the blood, there are many immature cells.

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How many live in chronic lymphocytic leukemia? The indicators vary widely. With the development of severe complications, patients die within the first 2 – 3 years after primary diagnosis. With timely diagnosis and the right treatment, the survival rate can reach 5 – 10 years or more until the lesion will not reach the terminal stage of development.