Blood glucose: normal women, men and children

Glucose (sugar) is the main source of energy for body tissues. Man gets glucose from food, processes it in the liver and then the blood it is carried to all organs and tissues. There are occasions when blood glucose enough, but into the cell she goes. This is due to the lack of the hormone insulin, which ensures the supply of glucose molecules into cells. Change amount of sugar in the blood (both increase and decrease) can be a symptom of serious diseases threatening human life. Therefore, the measurement of the glucose – binding analysis when placing a child in a preschool. Doctors recommend every to take a test to each adult.

Why the need for glucose, and how dangerous the lack of it?

Hypoglycemia, or an insufficient amount of sugar in the blood plasma is a state of life-threatening. Especially quickly it manifests itself in children. With a lack of glucose for replenishment of energy losses, the body breaks down fats. As a result of the metabolism of ketone bodies are formed which poison the child’s body, causing vomiting, weakness, sometimes loss of consciousness. Vomiting leads to dehydration, in severe cases, the child may fall into a coma. That’s why for the baby is very important regular food because the food he receives all the necessary substances, including glucose.

Dangerous than hyperglycemia?

Many people think that glucose, that is energy, not much happens. But excess blood sugar is no less dangerous than the lack of it. Glucose in the blood increases its osmotic molarity that results in the release of water from cells into the blood. Primarily from dehydration affects brain cells, causing the patient becomes listless, lethargic, it may even lose consciousness, his skin and mucous membranes become dry.

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Hyperglycemia is a condition that occurs as a result of the disruption of glucose uptake by cells. This happens in diabetes when not enough insulin – the hormone responsible for this absorption, or diseases of the thyroid gland and hypothalamus. The change in the amount of glucose (both upward and downward) is a frightening symptom that can be a signal of serious illness.

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How to determine the level of glucose in the blood?

To determine the number of blood glucose screening using rapid analysis, for which use capillary blood from a finger of the patient. As is known, the concentration of glucose increases after a meal. Therefore, for precision studies using blood taken on an empty stomach. Before analysis is not recommended to eat or drink for 8 – 10 hours. This method is used in all government clinics, but it has several disadvantages:

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  • Shows the sugar content in the blood at a particular time of the analysis. With daily blood sampling, the results of the analysis may vary.
  • If the clinic is located away from the patient and before blood he’ll walk, even higher numbers of sugar can come back to normal.
  • Laboratory for blood sampling is not always in ideal conditions (on ground floor), sometimes you have to wait your turn. In such cases, the patient has to undergo extra physical exertion (lifting on the second or third floor), stress (waiting in queue) that can affect the result of the analysis.

Today, there are more precise analysis, which reflects the level of sugar in the last 2 – 3 months before analysis. Called analysis – blood for glycated hemoglobin. It is expressed in percent. Normal 4 to 5% of hemoglobin corresponds to a sugar of 2.5 – 5.0 mmol/L. Patients with diabetes to quickly determine the number of glucose using glucometer, it gives the result after 1 – 2 minutes after the study.

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What is the normal blood glucose?

Interestingly, fluctuations in the level of glucose in the blood are subject to certain biorhythms. The lowest sugar content was observed in the night between three and six o’clock. The person without pathologies of the numbers of glucose is 3.3 – 5.5 mmol/l is normal level in blood. Increase these figures to 7.0 mmol/l after eating is also considered the norm. It should be noted that women and men have these same numbers. The child up to two years the rate of sugar is slightly lower, it is 2.8 – 4.4 mmol/l in older children normal levels of glucose are the same as in adults.

During pregnancy tissue of the mother become more sensitive to insulin, which can lead to increased sugar to 6.0 mmol/L. If it is above 6.1 mmol/l women should be further examined. In pregnant women there are cases of gestational diabetes, when diabetes first appears during pregnancy.

How to decipher the results of blood sugar?

  • If the result of the analysis is not more than 5.5 mmol/l is nothing to worry about, and in the lab for some blood work to come next year.
  • If the result was between 5.5 and 7.0, it can mean pre-diabetes, when the body is in a borderline condition between health and diabetes. In this case, the patient is assigned to an additional examination – an exercise test (blood test for immunity or tolerance to glucose).
  • If the result of the analysis on an empty stomach was more than 7.0 mmol/l, it is almost always a sign of diabetes. To confirm, carry out the test with load and analysis of glycated hemoglobin.
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    In the evaluation of the test results with the load based on the data in the primary analysis. When indicators of pre-diabetes an exercise test may be normal (up to 7.8 mmol/l), then the patient is assigned diet, exercise, that will help to avoid the development of diabetes.

    If the test result in the range of 7,8 – 11,0 mmol/l the diagnosis of prediabetes is confirmed. The patient is taken into account and is subject to regular examination. Prediabetes may at any time go to diabetes. People who are prone to being overweight, hypertension or have family relatives with diabetes must take regular blood sugar. If the test results show numbers higher 11,0 mmol/l, it says 100% diabetes. Then determine the type of diabetes (1 or type 2) and in accordance with that prescribed treatment.

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