Blood sugar in a child: Norma
Glucose – a monosaccharide, a component of polysaccharides and some disaccharides, is the final product of their hydrolysis. In human blood determine the level of glucose, since the concept of «sugar» brings together a very large group of compounds.
Function of glucose in the body
- Glucose is a universal source of energy required for normal metabolism.
- It participates in synthesis of lipids, amino acids, enzymes, nucleic acids and other compounds.
- A positive effect on the cardiovascular system.
- Reduces the feeling of hunger.
- Provides nutrition to brain cells.
- Normalizes the nervous system and eliminates stress and feeling depressed.
- Involved in cellular respiration.
- Increases physical and mental performance.
- Stimulates the internal organs.
What foods are glucose?
The main source of fresh fruits and berries (strawberries, raspberries, plums, watermelon, etc.). Small quantities of glucose contained in honey, dairy products, eggs and some seafood. Entering the body with food, glucose is always composed of complex carbohydrates. Their breakdown and absorption into the blood occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the glucose takes part in biochemical processes, and the rest is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver – a kind of depot of glucose. When the body needs additional portion of glucose, it switches to the reverse gear, and with the help of the hormone glucagon, glycogen is again converted into glucose.
What is the normal blood sugar in a child?
The rate in children depends on their age, and the younger the child, the lower the level of sugar in his blood.
- Have a one year old child and a baby – from 2.78 to 4.4 mmol/l;
- In children 2 to 6 years – from 3.3 to 5 mmol/l;
- For children of school age from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol/l, the same as in adults.
Since glucose in the blood is one of the main indicators analysis that determines the level should be conducted at least once a year, preferably before each planned examination of the child physician.
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Proper preparation testing
Special training is not required. It is sufficient to observe a few rules:
- blood sugar on an empty stomach;
- in the morning before testing do not brush teeth with toothpaste, because the individual components included in its composition, can improve the blood sugar;
- prior to analysis for 7 – 11 hours, you can not drink plenty of fluids;
- yesterday afternoon and evening to avoid physical stress;
- do not give your child chewing gum, which is the same as toothpaste, can affect the results of the analysis;
- on the background of the disease to be tested is prohibited, as sugar levels at this time can fluctuate greatly.
The blood analysis is carried out on an outpatient basis. Sometimes it can be done at home using glucometer. In older children the blood taken from a finger on the handle, infants children – from the heels, the big finger of the foot or the ear lobe. Upon delivery of the analysis of the outpatient results are usually ready the same day or the next morning.
Why the child may be elevated blood sugar?
Deviations can be caused not only by disease, but some factors influencing the results of the analysis:
- the baby ate before the test;
- the child is highly stressed;
- the body has an endocrine pathology;
- epilepsy in anamnesis;
- analysis commissioned during the illness;
- before examining the child for some time were taking medications that affect blood sugar.
Causes of high blood sugar in a child
- Errors in analysis or incorrect preparation for it.
- Severe nervous or physical strain, tested the day before the test (increases the production of thyroid hormones, pituitary, adrenal).
- Irregularities in functioning of the endocrine system (pathological processes in the glands of internal secretion leads to the failure in the synthesis of hormones that affect blood sugar).
- Any pathology of the pancreas (tumors, inflammation), which develops insulin deficiency (reduced production of insulin).
- Obesity. There is a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which becomes impossible to maintain normal sugar levels. In this case, the pancreas begins to vigorously synthesize insulin and wears out quickly. In the end, over time, insulin production decreases, but the performance of the blood sugar is still above normal.
- Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or glucocorticoids.
- Sarcoidosis (the disease is rarely diagnosed in children) is a systemic pathology, in which the different organs (including the liver) appear granulomas (nodules). The main treatment – intake of glucocorticoids.
The symptoms of hyperglycemia
- Constant thirst.
- Frequent and copious urination.
- Dry skin and mucous membranes.
- Fatigue and irritability.
- The constant need for sweets.
- Weakness, drowsiness after eating.
- Fast weight loss
- The decrease in visual acuity.
Upon detection of such symptoms should immediately consult a pediatrician and endocrinologist for in-depth examination of the child using specific tests.
The causes of low blood sugar
- Prolonged fasting, especially if it is accompanied by a lack of water.
- Pathological processes in the gastrointestinal tract (primarily, disease of the pancreas, which lead to decreased production of essential substances to maintain normal amount of glucose in the blood, and inflammation localized on the mucous membranes, which affect the breakdown and absorption of glucose).
- Long-term, debilitating diseases (especially the chronic form).
- Of metabolic disorders.
- Congenital and acquired diseases of the nervous system, including trauma.
- Intoxication with chemicals (especially arsenic, or chloroform).
- Insulinoma – a pancreatic tumor (often benign) that develops mainly from beta-cells and uncontrollably secretes into the bloodstream a large amount of insulin.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia
- Restless behavior of the baby, alternating uncontrolled excitation.
- The child feels hunger and asks to eat (if you already know how to say).
- Excessive sweating and dizziness.
After this picture, if not timely pay attention to the child’s condition, possible loss of consciousness, convulsions and even hypoglycemic coma. First aid in this case is very simple. If the child is conscious, enough to give him some candy or chocolate to bring the sugar level to normal. If the baby is unconscious, intravenous glucose solutions.
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