Blood tests for cancer: what show?
Blood tests for cancer is part of the diagnosis, and also used to monitor the dynamics of the process in the diagnosis.
By results of General biochemical tests is to evaluate the patient’s condition, identifies the processes of disease in the body.
General analysis of blood
When detection of cancer pay attention to 3 metrics:
Cancers are characterized by increased levels of young forms of leukocytes in the blood. Standards ESR range: female 8-15 mm/h, men 6-12 mm/h Increase in ESR at 10-50 mm/h indicates pathology in the body.
The decrease in the level of hemoglobin, test results one of the indicators of the presence in the body of cancer cells. The drop in the level of hemoglobin in cancer reaches 60-70 units. At these rates of hemoglobin anemia is diagnosed, then identify its cause. Anemia cause in addition to bleeding and cancer, lesions of bone marrow, hemolytic, toxic processes. Lowering the level of hemoglobin, the errors in the diet, fatigue, the use of cigarettes and alcohol. Malignant tumors in the stomach and intestines lead to a drop in hemoglobin level.
It should be noted that diagnosis of cancer not only occurs in abnormalities of leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin. The information obtained is analyzed by the physician for tactics choice of actions and the appointment of additional research methods.
When cancer is detected, the informative value is represented by the biochemical analysis of blood. It provides an opportunity to assess changes in the level of presence of tumor markers — substances produced in response to the emergence of cancerous cells. Note that the level of tumor markers in the blood for each individual and may vary depending on various factors, so for a more accurate result, the blood is repeated several times. The data obtained to assess changes in the dynamics, whereby the doctor makes a conclusion.
The studied tumor markers:
- Cancer embryonic antigen — CEA. The formation of the antigen CEA occurs during development of the embryo and then the fetus. After the birth, the synthesis of CEA in the body is blocked. Exceeding the permissible norms observed in benign and malignant diseases. But in Oncology there is a sharp increase in the level of CEA. Through this tumor marker tumor of the gastrointestinal tract are diagnosed in the early stages; estimated dynamics of treatment and its efficiency; kontroliruya relapses and the spread of metastases. For example, the CEA level of 2.5 ng/ml when Smoking, this rate is higher and reaches 5 ng/ml.
- Calcitonin and thyroglobulin. Hormone calcitonin and thyroglobulin is a protein the thyroid gland. The change in the level of these compounds suggests a potential chance for development of thyroid cancer.
- PSA — prostate-specific antigen. The growth of the antigen is associated with prostate cancer development. Also a deviation from the norm is accompanied by benign hypertrophy of the prostate. Standard indicators for PSA up to 4 ng/ml.
- AFP and HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) — the increase in the level of this indicator occurs when the embryonic types of cancer, and ovarian cancer. The increase in HCG is also due to pregnancy, use of drugs, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, testicular failure, cirrhosis of the liver. Normal levels of gonadotropin are less than 2.5 IU/ml.
- AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) is a glycoprotein of fetal cells. High rates are allowed during pregnancy, in newborns; talking about diseases of the liver, inflammation in the gut. The level of AFP is determined by cancer of the liver at an early stage of development. At rates over 400 E is diagnosed with cancer. The norm is 0-10 IU/ml.
- CA 15-3 — change of the tumor marker establishes the presence of malignancy in the breast, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial, bladder. Performance improvements also occur because of liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis), lupus, tuberculosis, non-oncological diseases of mammary glands. Norma — 31 U/ml.
- CEA (cancerreally antigen) or CEA REA, AIDS in the diagnosis of oncological diseases of many internal organs: breast cancer, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital organs, lungs, thyroid. An increase in readings can be due to Smoking, diseases of the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, lung disease. Normal is 2.5 ng/ml.
- CA 125 — the tumor marker readings this can be judged on the development of oncological processes in the ovaries, mammary glands, colon and rectum, uterus, pancreas, liver and lungs. The increase is observed during pregnancy, amid menopause, benign ovarian tumors, pancreatitis, cirrhosis, peritonitis, pleurisy, surgery or puncture of the abdominal cavity. Normal 0-35 U/ml.
Scientific studies allow to identify new types of tumor markers, this makes it possible to diagnose malignant tumors at early stages of the disease. In this case, the chance of recovery is great enough. However, it should be remembered that increasing levels of tumor markers may indicate a place in the body inflammation, not associated with cancer. Therefore, to base the diagnosis only on blood test results inadmissible.