Bradycardia: symptoms and treatment
Bradycardia — a medical term for a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute. What is the danger of bradycardia and how to detect it?
What is bradycardia?
The normal value of heart rate (heart rate) of an adult is 60 – 80 beats per minute at rest. Bradycardia heart can be like a godsend, and subject to diagnostic search. It depends on its severity and hemodynamic significance. According to the degree of severity is:
- a lightweight (50 – 60 beats/min);
- moderate (40 – 50 beats/min);
- severe (less than 40 beats/min).
However, this classification does not always correlate with severity of symptoms and the need for therapy. Therefore, practicing doctors distinguish pathological (hemodynamically significant) and physiological bradycardia. Pathological and requiring treatment is slowing of the pulse, which leads to insufficient supply of blood to tissues and organs. The most sensitive to the deficiency of blood flow to the brain. For bradycardia patients concerned about the following symptoms:
- weakness, fatigue, decreased performance, poor exercise tolerance;
- frequent dizziness, feeling short of breath;
- shortness of breath;
- chest pain;
- changes in blood pressure;
- disorders of memory and attention, periodic disturbances;
- the occasional confusion of thought.
Bradycardia may occur in the form of attacks Morgagni-Adams-Stokes — a sudden brief loss of consciousness due to a sharp shortage of oxygen supply to the brain. It is possible convulsions, involuntary defecation and urination. If the arrhythmia is not relieved for a long time, there is a risk of death.
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At the same time, many people bradycardia does not cause any trouble. For example, in athletes, the heart muscle is well trained, one heart contraction is very powerful, so the tissues of the body for adequate blood supply is sufficient less than 60 beats per minute.
Causes of bradycardia
Heart rhythm is influenced by many different factors — the autonomic and somatic nervous system, the endocrine glands, the General condition of the body. Accordingly, the causes of bradycardia can be quite a lot.
- A good fitness of the myocardium. The people involved in cyclic sports (running, Cycling, rowing, etc.), that is, making a moderate load for a long period of time, the heart muscle is accustomed to active work in conditions of oxygen deficiency, so in normal mode its powerful contractions enough for adequate circulation.
- General hypothermia. In the fall of body temperature below 35°With included protective mechanisms, including slowing of the heart rate.
- Reflex Dagnini-Aschner — decrease in heart rate when pressing on the eyeballs.
- Sinocarotid reflex zones — decrease in the heart rate when you massage the carotid artery in the region of its division into external and internal.
- Bradycardia old. With age between cardiomyocytes appears the connective tissue, so the nerve impulse is slower.
- Drug effect what kind of medication can cause bradycardia? It is Quinidine, cardiac glycosides, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, simpatolitiki, antiaritmiki, Morphine. After discontinuation of these drugs restores normal heart rhythm.
- Parasympathicotonia — a condition in which the autonomic nervous system dominated by the influence of the parasympathetic fibres including the vagus nerve. It is possible for dystonia, neurosis, increased intracranial pressure due to tumor, brain edema or hematoma, meningoencephalitis. Parasympathicotonia is found in diseases of the mediastinum.
- Hypothyroidism — levels of thyroid hormones directly correlated with the heart rate.
- Exposure to toxins — heavy metals, organophosphorus compounds, nicotine, drugs.
- Infectious diseases — typhoid, sepsis of any etiology in some cases of viral hepatitis.
- Heart disease — myocardial infarction, endocarditis, myocarditis, ischemic heart disease, cardiosclerosis.
Bradycardia, the cause of which could not figure out, is called idiopathic.
Bradycardia in the fetus
During pregnancy, the frequency of fetal heart rate is monitored every reception of the obstetrician-gynecologist. This is important because at the heart rate of the embryo can be judged, if he is not suffering from hypoxia or other adverse factors. Causes of bradycardia in newborns and fetuses following:
- the use of nicotine and alcohol;
- sedentary lifestyle of the mother;
- the use of certain medication;
- chronic diseases of the heart and lungs of the pregnant woman;
- congenital malformations of the fetus;
- rhesus conflict;
- multiple pregnancy;
- water shortage or polyhydramnios;
- severe toxicosis;
- premature detachment of the placenta;
- suffocation by an umbilical cord to the neck of the fetus.
All of these conditions can threaten the successful course of pregnancy and the life of the unborn child, so the woman should be examined and treated according to the recommendations of your a gynecologist.
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Diagnosis of the problem
To clarify the diagnosis after a consultation and examination, the doctor will appoint additional researches:
- ECG (electrocardiography);
- Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart);
- veloergometry load (registration of ECG in conditions of the dosed physical load);
- CPAPI (transesophageal electrophysiological study).
All of these tests will give the doctor information for the selection of drugs.
How to treat bradycardia?
Depending on the severity of the condition may be hospitalized at specialized cardiology Department or treatment at home. You have the following options for medical care:
- conservative (drug);
- with the help of folk remedies.
When selecting the conservative way physician, General practitioner or cardiologist individually pick up the necessary drugs. The most often prescribed Atropine, Isoprenaline, Izadrin, Aminophylline, medicines of ginseng, Siberian ginseng, belladonna. They are all ambiguous impact on the patient and should be used strictly according to recommendations to avoid dangerous side effects. Surgical treatment is to install the pacemaker — a special device that generates and imposes the myocardium of the right rhythm.
No need to rush to the healers with the question of how to raise a pulse. Treatment of folk remedies should also be agreed with the doctor, as the grass is not always combined with drugs and may have pronounced side effects. Often used everlasting, Thistle, yarrow, Chinese Magnolia vine. Their main effect — the effect on the parasympathetic nervous system of the body.
Bradycardia and army
Bradycardia is a symptom of many diseases. Among them from military service exempt atrioventricular block and syndrome of weakness of sinus node.