Brain edema: treatment
Swelling is the body’s response to many types of damage. It can be due to trauma or infectious process. Swelling, which affects the Central nervous system, can cause serious problems, including death. In addition, to treat him harder than the swelling of peripheral tissues.
What is brain swelling?
Brain swelling has many names:
- Swelling of the brain.
- Cerebral edema.
Swelling may occur in specific locations or throughout the brain, it depends on its causes. When it develops, it increases the pressure inside the skull. This prevents the flow of blood to the brain, depriving it of essential oxygen. Cerebral edema can cause damage or death of neurocytol.
What causes brain swelling?
The reason for the development of the brain swelling may be the following problems:
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- Traumatic brain injury due to falls, car accidents, blows to the head.
- Ischemic strokes, caused by the interruption of blood supply to a certain area of the brain.
- Intracranial hemorrhage associated with rupture of cerebral vessels.
- Infections caused by bacteria or viruses (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, subdural empyema or toxoplasmosis).
- Of the tumor.
- Rise to great heights.
What is brain swelling?
Signs of cerebral edema may be different, their development is affected by the severity and the causes of edema. Usually the symptoms appear suddenly. These include:
- neck pain or stiffness;
- nausea and vomiting;
- arithmetische breathing;
- changes or loss of vision;
- memory loss;
- inability to walk;
- stupor (lethargy, catalepsy);
- loss of consciousness.
How to determine the presence of brain edema?
The event, which the doctor uses to identify brain swelling depend on the symptoms present and the suspected cause. Often used the following methods of examination:
- Examination of the head and neck.
- Neurological examination.
- Computer or magnetic-resonance imaging of the head, by which it is possible to determine the degree and localization of brain edema.
- Blood tests that can sometimes help determine the cause of the swelling.
How to treat cerebral edema?
Mild cases of edema of the brain due to causes such as moderate altitude sickness or a mild concussion often go away on their own within a few days. However, in most cases, there is a need for immediate treatment.
The goal of the therapy is to the brain he received such amount of blood and oxygen, which is sufficient for maintaining its vitality and health until until the swelling is gone and will not be able to tackle its causes. This may require a combination of medical and surgical approaches. Proper treatment usually leads to a quick and full recovery. Without this, there can still be damage to a certain extent. Treatment of cerebral edema may include:
- Oxygen therapy. The oxygen helps to improve its blood and entering the brain.
- Intravenous fluids and medications. This can prevent a drop in blood pressure that facilitates adequate blood supply of the brain and the entire body.
- The decrease in body temperature (hypothermia). This helps reduce swelling and allows the brain to heal. Hypothermia is really not used often, because its implementation is quite complex.
- Drugs. In some cases of brain edema, your doctor may prescribe drugs that reduce swelling. Sometimes administered funds, which slow down the body’s response to swelling or resolve blood clots causing ischemic stroke. Kind of prescribed drugs depends on the cause and symptoms of cerebral edema.
- A ventriculostomy. In this procedure, the surgeon makes a small hole in the skull and inserts a small plastic drainage. The inside of the brain displayed cerebrospinal fluid, helping to reduce intracranial pressure.
- Surgery. The aim of the intervention may be the removal of part of the skull to reduce the pressure inside it (decompression trepanation) or resolve the cause of the brain swelling. After surgery, careful monitoring of intracranial pressure.