Brain hemorrhage: what is it, causes and treatment
Brain hemorrhage is one of the most dangerous disorders of cerebral circulation. High mortality and disability of patients who survived the stroke, determine the relevance of the problem. Knowledge of the causes, development and treatment guidelines will help patients and their families to identify the disease at early stages and to prevent its development.
What is it?
Bleeding in the brain (in the medical literature use the term «hemorrhagic stroke») is the ingress of blood into the substance of the brain due to the rupture of diseased cerebral arteries. This pathology is only 10 – 12% of all strokes in the brain and is the most severe form of stroke.
Disability after this stroke is almost 100%, therefore, the most important aspect is the timely diagnosis and treatment, which allow to at least partially restore the lost abilities of the body. The lethality of this disease is 30 – 40%.
The causes of hemorrhage and contributing factors
The reasons for the development of intracerebral hemorrhage can be:
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In addition to the direct causes, there are a number of contributing factors. These include sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, nutrition, high cholesterol, overweight, age, alcohol abuse, cardiovascular disease, etc.
Clinical picture and classification
Divided bleeding in the brain depending on the location and amount of damage. Depending on location there are:
- intracerebral (parenchymal) when the hematoma within the parenchyma of the brain;
- subarachnoid, when the hematoma is in the space between the arachnoid and the soft shell;
- intraventricular when the hemorrhage has occurred in one of the ventricles of the brain;
In addition, there are extensive and limited hemorrhage, and in the description may specify the proportion (frontal, temporal, etc.), where is the hematoma.
The symptoms of the disease depend on the volume of the lesion and the localization of the hematoma. The patient may complain of:
1. Cerebral symptoms lesions:
- drowsiness, stupor, stupor, or Vice versa unmotivated joy and excitement, rarely, loss of consciousness, a deep swoon;
- headaches and dizziness;
- nausea and uncontrollable vomiting, which does not bring relief;
- fever, tachycardia, hot flashes;
- when hemorrhage in the brain stem occurs stop breathing and heartbeat, which leads to the death of the patient.
2. Focal manifestations are due to what part of the brain was affected:
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- there may be paresis and paralysis;
- muscle weakness;
- loss of individual types of sensitivity;
- dizziness and ringing in the ears;
- auditory and visual hallucinations;
- impaired memory, speech, ability to email;
- problems with gait, unsteadiness etc.
- in case of irritation of the meninges, the meningeal syndrome is observed.
On the background of stroke, increases the likelihood of secondary bacterial infection and the development of related symptoms.
Important! I think the most dangerous period in the first 7 – 10 days after a stroke. It was at this time there is a danger of cerebral edema. When this condition occurs stop breathing and heartbeat, which inevitably leads to death.
How does the test work?
The most important diagnostic methods with the diagnosis CT and MRI are considered. They allow you to quickly set the center and radius, to distinguish between fresh stroke from migrated. Additionally, it may be shown angiography to identify vascular pathology (aneurysm, malformation, or rupture). The EEG performed the coma patients, to determine the activity of the cortical substance of the brain. For the differential diagnosis of may require performing a lumbar puncture. It is done only after a CT scan, as in hemorrhagic stroke, this procedure can provoke swelling in the brain.
Principles of therapy
Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke and spend conservatively or surgically. Drug therapy includes:
Important! When a stored defect of the vessel, preference is given to surgical intervention because the risk of recurrent hemorrhage is very high.
Surgical treatment is performed by a neurosurgeon. This specialist using modern diagnostic and treatment equipment, can close the defect in the vessel that will prevent the development of subsequent strokes. The prognosis for life in this adverse stroke, so the main attention is paid to prevention. Preventive measures include control of blood pressure, adherence to the principles of a healthy diet, normalizing body weight, quitting Smoking and alcohol.