Bypass grafting of blood vessels of the heart: what is it, how I live?
Coronary blood vessels play an important role in our body and supply blood to the heart, supplying him with all necessary nutrients. If closing one or more of the coronary vessels, it threatens not only pathologies, but also in death. In this case, resort to the method of bypass surgery of heart vessels (coronary bypass grafting).
Bypass grafting of blood vessels of the heart: what is it?
Such a complex term called the natural replacement of coronary artery other. The main goal of the surgery creation of additional blood flow from the aorta to the arteries to pass a place where there is blockage of the vessel or atherosclerotic plaque. Usually, as such a «workaround» use of thoracic artery, it has good resistance to atherosclerosis, and acts as a long-lasting shunt. In some cases, also using the long saphenous vein of the thigh or the radial artery.
Heart surgery can be single, double or triple — it describes the number of required grafts. What is the volume of intervention necessary, prescribed only by a cardiologist. Interestingly, in the early stages coronary heart disease may need to double or triple bypass, while in severe cases will a single shunt — it all depends on the individual characteristics of the patient.
How is the surgery itself?
There are several possible ways of bypass surgery. In the first case, the surgery is done after stopping the heart and connecting a special device which does all the work for the human body. Advantage of this technique is that it requires less skill from the surgeon and in General is faster and easier. The disadvantage is a longer recovery process and a large number of possible complications.
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The second option is a surgical intervention on a beating heart. This method shortens the duration of the operation, reduces the risk and possible complications. The only problem is that the surgeon requires maximum precision in the movements and highly qualified otherwise it may be fatal.
The modern method is minimally invasive (namakaranam) bypass surgery using the heart-lung machine or without it. This method is most expensive and they are not available in all clinics. Benefits weight: reduction in blood loss, reduction of inpatient treatment up to 5 – 10 days and a General acceleration of recovery, fewer possible complications of an infectious nature.
Recovery after surgery
After the operation the patient is transferred to the intensive care unit. The first stage of rehabilitation — the restoration of the myocardium and lungs — takes up to 10 days; its main task is to ensure normal breathing of the patient. Seams with bust and the place where I got the shunt, the first time it is washed with antiseptics to avoid complications, and are removed one week after grafting. Shower you can begin to take only 1 – 2 weeks after healing.
The bone of the sternum usually heals in 4 – 6 months. To accelerate this process it is recommended to wear a special breast support. For prevention of thrombosis in the lower extremities on the legs, wear elastic stockings and avoid strenuous exercise.
To prevent anemia, you should include in the diet more foods containing iron (green apples, buckwheat, liver, etc.). A month after bypass heart surgery hemoglobin usually comes back to normal. A further task of rehabilitation is to restore breathing and physical activity. For this the patient must heed the doctor’s appointments, about the respiratory gymnastics and medical gymnastics.
How I live after coronary artery bypass grafting?
Statistics show that more than half of patients after surgery disappear all the problems that bothered them previously, the rest comes improvement. Approximately 85% of cases re-atherosclerosis occurs. To predict the duration and quality of life after bypass surgery can not no doctor, even the most experienced and qualified. In most cases, the shunt can last up to 10 years and then need another surgery. Remember that it is very important to stop Smoking before the operation. Otherwise, the chances of coronary heart disease again would not bother the patient significantly drop.
Indications for surgery
The main pathologies in which suggest to use the method of coronary artery bypass surgery include:
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- aortic aneurysm;
- lose some or all of the coronary arteries;
- coronary heart disease;
- overweight together with cardiovascular system diseases;
- the narrowing of the lumen of the left artery.
Despite the fact that the list of indications for carrying out bypass heart surgery small, surgery is performed often enough. The cost of surgical intervention varies from 150 – 500 thousand rubles in Russia to 1.5 million rubles in the Israeli or German clinics.