Cardiac arrhythmia: symptoms, treatment, types, first signs
A heart arrhythmia is a rhythm disturbance of the work of the authority, which may not be evident, but may be accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. Arrhythmia occurs due to improper functioning of the electrical impulses that initiate contractions of the heart. In this pathology the on beats irregularly, too fast or too slow, if not distracting from the beat.
Arrhythmia is one of the most common pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Cases of such a diagnosis comprises approximately a quarter of all diseases of the cardiac sphere. That is why it is important to know the causes and mechanism of development of violations of rhythm of heart work in time to go to the doctor for help.
Pathogenesis (current) disease
Depending on the factor causing the arrhythmias, can disrupt some of the functions of the heart (in milder cases only one):
- automaticity — provides automatic reduction of the heart pacemaker;
- conductivity — ability to transmit impulses on the cardiac conducting system;
- Abernethy distinguished by a heart with the opportunity to conduct impulses along separate paths;
- refractivity — a feature that provides no return already held the momentum and imposing on him the following at some time;
- anxiety — a feature of excitable cells, which differ in that they can respond to stimulation by generating action potential.
Depending on which function is affected, the patient may experience different set of symptoms.
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What is the arrhythmia?
As arrhythmia is an aggregate definition, which combines several different rhythm disorders of the heart, the symptoms, signs and the mechanism of disease may differ. The arrhythmia is usually manifested by tachycardia, bradycardia or arrythmia.
Ekstrasistoliei arrhythmia is characterized in that the patient feels the crashing rhythm of the heart, extraordinary or premature its decline, manifested by tremors in the chest. Usually after extrasystole, there is a «rest» body fading. Among other subjective symptoms that distinguish anxiety and fear. Most often ekstrasistoliei arrhythmia was not concerned as long as the heart-rate-fast «back to normal». Especially frequently observed arrhythmia in pregnant women.
Tachycardia is an increase in the number of heart contractions up to 90 or more. This symptom is usually accompanied by a feeling of disruption in the heart, rapid blows on, which sometimes even feels the patient, feelings of worry and anxiety. Tachycardia increased sweating, patient feels fever. Sometimes possible fainting.
About atrial fibrillation say when accelerating heart rhythm and increasing frequency of its contractions to 150 beats or more. In this case the person has shortness of breath, feeling short of breath, restlessness and experience severe dizziness and significant disruptions in the body. Vagal arrhythmia occurs when the arrythmia are in the nature of peace.
Bradycardia, on the contrary, is characterized by a slowing of the heart, reducing heart rate to less than 60 beats per minute. Patients with this type of arrhythmia is bothering chest pain, feeling of weakness and drowsiness, dizziness, decrease in blood pressure, lightheadedness (sense of loss in space, ringing in the ears, darkening before the eyes, loss of coordination, etc.). Often patients with bradycardia complain of frequent syncope, and blanching of the skin and its cold.
Blockade in heart are due to the absence or significant slowing of the impulses that cause the contraction of the heart muscle. They are accompanied by the absence of a pulse, fainting and convulsions.
How dangerous is arrhythmia?
Can you die from arrhythmia? In fact, the consequences of this disease can be really serious. Not worth the irresponsible attitude to the changes in the heart and test the consequences of the arrhythmia, especially if the symptoms bother you greatly. Especially dangerous atrial fibrillation and blockade, although other manifestations of heart failure can be fatal.
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For example, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is a chronic (30 – 50% of cases – hereditary) disease, the main characteristics of which are chronic heart failure and neglect cases of bradycardia or tachycardia.
Classification of arrhythmias
Distinguish between the types of arrhythmias in General was already discussed above in paragraphs with signs of pathology. Among the main disorders of the rhythm to distinguish sinus and paroxysmal (ventricular, type «pirouette») tachycardia, bradycardia and arrhythmia.
Difference between sinus and paroxysmal tachycardia – significant. It describes the mechanism of the disease, its causes, signs symptoms, treatment and possible consequences. For example, the syndrome arrhythmia with ventricular tachycardia is characterized in that the patient, there is an attack, which can result in death, whereas sinus tachycardia is acceleration of the rhythm is gradual and less dangerous for the body. Can also be systolic arrhythmia arises due to improper contraction of the ventricles.
Pathology can be classified depending on where exactly the problem occurs, the number and characteristics of sources of violation of conductivity and excitability, time of attack, the frequency of violations, etc.
What is arrhythmia?
The causes of arrhythmia can also vary greatly, and they depend not only on what kind of arrhythmia the patient has, but also on comorbidities, usual routine, the presence of harmful habits, etc.
In some cases, the cause of pathology may be physiological. For example, many people in different times of day can be observed arrhythmias. Also influenced by weather (climate), physical activity (professional athletes very often have heart disease), administration of various medications, diet, etc. there is Often a so-called «arrhythmia of feeling» when the rhythm is disturbed due to emotional turmoil.
In healthy people, especially teenagers with VSD (which has long been considered an age norm), can be mild arrhythmia throughout the day. Slight tachycardia may be observed after eating and stress, bradycardia during sleep, etc. to Determine whether the norm of certain arrhythmias, can only be a doctor.
Most often, the arrhythmia is a symptom of another disease. For example, ischemic heart disease (arrhythmic variant) is characterized in that as a result of plaque build-up and clogging of the lumen of blood vessels begin to experience abnormalities of the heart. Angina (which is also one of the manifestations of CHD) for the pain can also be arrhythmia. Among the other major pathological causes of arrhythmias are:
- abuse of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks, Smoking;
- malnutrition and gastrointestinal disorders;
- mental disorders: depression, neurosis, stress, etc.;
- low back pain and pinched nerves and blood vessels;
- excessive physical exercise (especially if it is a professional sport);
- the metabolic disorder;
- heart disease;
- arterial hypertension;
- infectious and fungal infections;
- brain pathology etc.
Diagnosis of arrhythmia
The primary method of detecting arrhythmia in a patient survey and counting the pulse. The counting of pulse in sec. is 20, 30, or 60, depending on whether observed or not any violations. Often used a special blood pressure cuff, a distinctive feature of which is an indicator of arrhythmia.
In addition, one effective method is electrocardiography. On ECG is clearly visible features of the rhythm of the heart. For each type of arrhythmia emit their characteristic features (features of teeth, intervals between contractions, etc.), so the ECG can be a good method of differential diagnostics. As additional techniques may also be used an ECHO, ultrasound of the heart or the thyroid gland, daily monitoring of ECG (Holter testing) and General hormonal blood tests, etc.
How to deal with arrhythmia?
It should be noted that this pathology does not always need medical treatment. In some cases, the patient enough to reconsider your habits to replace bad meals for heart-healthy foods, engage in physical therapy. Very often in patients, the question arises: is it possible to play sports with arrhythmia? First, it depends on what degree of heart damage and pathology observed in the patient. In addition, it should be understood that the answer to the question will depend on what sport you are going to do, how he is active and what the load requires.
How to treat arrhythmia? «First aid» in the detection of this disease must come from the patient. The important role played by breathing exercises, proper nutrition (in some cases, the diet appointed by the attending physician) and the rejection of bad habits. You can also make soothing herbs (mint, lemon balm, chamomile), making tea. It is well calms the nervous system.
How to treat pathology in the inpatient setting? In the hospital treatment is not only taking numerous medications, but in the special methods of influence on the body. Widely used current treatment, which stimulates individual excitable cells and allows to restore the correct rhythm.
EIT when an arrhythmia is a collective term. They describe therapies that help you deal with disorders of the heart. The most widely used method of EIT is electrical cardioversion. During pregnancy medication and physiotherapy treatment differs little from that in patients not carrying the baby.
Remember that full cure arrhythmia can only by a qualified technician. Take care of your health, time to see your doctor!