Cardiogram of the heart: interpretation, sinus rhythm
Electrocardiogram (ECG) – graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart, presented in the form of alternating teeth. The ECG interpretation by the doctor imply the expression record in verbal form. The jury will evaluate the heart rhythm, which shows the operation of the system, generation and conduction of cardiac impulses. Second, the ECG reflects the state of the myocardium (heart muscle).
The concept of ECG
Heart cardiogram or electrocardiogram – is a simple and informative diagnostic method. The ECG recording is performed using a special instrument, the electrocardiograph, which can be different versions (stationary, portable). Cardiograph graphically reflects the charges of electricity which is generated and held in the heart. To generate and conduct electrical impulses based work of the heart, consisting in contraction and relaxation of certain areas in a proper manner.
The ECG recording is performed by applying electrodes to certain areas of the patient’s body: chest, wrists and ankles. Wire electrodes are joined to the apparatus and fed to him. It is writing to the twelve graphs, called leads. Graphics are recorded on a special tape, which the doctor evaluates the result of the study, describes in detail all the necessary parameters and displays the conclusion. Indications for ECG:
- the next routine inspection;
- examination before surgery;
- patient complaints pain and discomfort in the region of the heart;
- complaints of palpitations, slow or irregular heartbeat;
- elevated levels of cholesterol and lipids in the biochemical analysis of blood;
- state after infectious diseases;
- the presence of chronic somatic diseases;
- state after myocardial infarction;
- deterioration in patients suffering from cardiac pathologies.
What is sinus rhythm on EKG?
ECG graph form the teeth, which is estimated height, depth, amplitude. The teeth are denoted with Latin letters: P, Q, R, S, T, U. the Heart rate is estimated by the distance between adjacent teeth R (this is the highest cogs) and cogs P (the first prong of the complex).
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If the ECG interpretation contains the phrase «regular sinus rhythm», it means the same distance between the teeth P and the teeth R, and the prongs P have the same configuration. This is the most successful option when combined with a heart rate of 60 to 88 the rate at which the heart is stable. So, in order sinus node (pacemaker) that generates an electrical pulse and provide heart rate.
Heart rhythm disorders
Sometimes in the cardiogram, the doctor recognizes the rhythm nakanosawa. This implies that the formation of the cardiac impulse occurs not in the sinus node, and the other source of electric potential. This indicator shows the pathological condition in the heart. The cardiologist decides on the necessity and tactics of treatment.
Irregular sinus rhythm means the presence of sinus arrhythmia. Sinus arrhythmia is more common in young and pediatric age. The pulse shaping occurs in the sinus node, but the distance between the teeth varies due to irregular heart rate. Types of sinus arrhythmia:
- respiratory (in the process of exhalation heart rate are less);
- mediately (detected during ECG recording when the patient is asked to hold your breath).
Most often respiratory arrhythmia is a normal variant and does not require special treatment. Mediately arrhythmia requires careful ECG analysis and possible further research. Patients with the presence of sinus arrhythmia should be observed by a cardiologist to determine the severity of the situation. If the state compensated does not require treatment, further monitoring is not carried out. In the presence of progressive pathology and selection of treatment observation at the cardiologist continues.
Sinus tachycardia – sinus rhythm combination with heart rate (heart rate) of more than 89 beats per minute. Is physiological (after physical and emotional stress, intake of stimulating drinks), and pathological, when the heartbeat of learning and also alone (heart defects, cardiomyopathy, tireotoxicose). Pathological sinus tachycardia cropped in the treatment of the underlying disease.
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Sinus bradycardia sinus rhythm with reduced rate of heart rate (less than 51 beats per minute). Can also be physical (in a healthy person during sleep, in trained athletes) and pathological, that is observed in any condition and is characterized by a particularly low HR 45-35 beats per minute. Pathological sinus bradycardia is often an indication of the syndrome sick sinus (SSSU). This heart condition is characterized by decrease in the basic function predserdno-sinus node – forming electrical pulse.
If SSSU lengthy intervals between heartbeats for up to three seconds during waking hours and up to 5 seconds during sleep. This leads to insufficient supply of oxygen to tissues (hypoxia), which is dangerous for life and health of the patient. If there are such signs as dizziness, presyncopal state, fainting, headaches, should undergo a thorough examination by a doctor. The appropriate surgery to install an artificial pacemaker.
Beats, sudden or extraordinary contraction of the heart, in which the pulses do not come from the sinus node, and from additional centers. After the beats there is always a compensatory pause, which can be felt by the patient as «bated breath». The origin of the impulse gives the name of the arrhythmia – atrial, atrioventricular, or ventricular. Often, premature beats do not require treatment, but sometimes occurs on the background of existing heart disease and require additional therapy.