Coronary insufficiency: what is it, symptoms
Coronary insufficiency is a vascular pathology in which the heart is not satisfied in full by the blood. Coronary insufficiency occurs as primary and secondary. For example, stenosis of the coronary vessels of the heart pathology is primary, and if the vascular changes caused by disorders of the heart muscle, such as coronary insufficiency would be considered secondary. Current patterns are distinguished acute and chronic form of the disease.
Acute coronary insufficiency
For this form of the disease exists and the second title of the coronary crisis. It indicates the severity of the pathological process occurring in the heart. Coronary crisis characterized by a sharp discrepancy in the volume of blood flow to those needs that at the moment pushes the body. This deficiency of blood is manifested by angina, severe disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction, obvious changes on the electrocardiogram. The most unpleasant consequences of the crisis coronary myocardial infarction and sudden death of the patient.
Chronic coronary insufficiency
In this case, the failure provide heart necessary blood volume is sensed constantly, because by this time, there are clear changes of the coronary vessels, which in future can no longer perform their functions as before.
The causes of the disease
Lead to coronary insufficiency may different reasons. Here are the most common of them:
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- atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries;
- closure of the lumen of blood vessels by tumor cells;
- injury to the coronary artery;
- congenital abnormalities of blood vessels (hypoplasia of the coronary vessels, stenosis of the pulmonary trunk);
- endocarditis of bacterial origin;
- obstructive cardiomyopathy;
- aortic aneurysm;
- trichinosis myocarditis;
- dissecting aneurysm of the aorta;
- anaphylactic shock;
- cholecystitis or pancreatitis in the acute stage;
- violation of cerebral circulation;
- strikes, infringement of the brain or spinal cord;
- swelling of the brain.
Pathological process develops in most cases suddenly and is accompanied by obstruction of coronary arteries as a result of thrombosis, embolism or spasm of the vessel. While unaffected by ischemia of the heart region are requesting more blood in the adjacent vessels, which are not affected by the pathology. It also includes the complex mechanisms of compensation, in which normal blood vessels try to provide blood unmodified areas of the heart.
The cause of this disease, scientists primarily see a sharp reduction in the coronary vessels, in particular in patients with diagnosed angina of Prinzmetal in which vasospasm occurs without an increase in request volume of the blood. Also, it could trigger a spasm of normal coronary vessels.
If coronary insufficiency is secondary, in this case the reason lies in the fall in cardiac, anemia, intoxication by carbon monoxide and other pathologies.
Coronary insufficiency is primarily manifested by angina or shortness of breath. In terminal stages there comes a myocardial infarction. Less severe first degree of failure, where the strokes are rare, and then only during physical exertion or emotional strain. The second stage is characterized by clear symptoms of angina, while it appears at any exertion. The third degree of the pathology is characterized by frequent severe attacks, which occur not only at load but also at rest.
First aid for seizures and treatment of the disease
In addition, that therapy should be primarily directed at treatment of the underlying cause of the disease, it is very important to provide competent first aid in case of coronary insufficiency and to control angina. Otherwise, the patient succumbs to myocardial infarction, and statistics on mortality shows even more startling – a heart attack at home as the cause of death happens in two and a half times more likely than the heart attack that happened at the clinic. This means that patients do not know the basic fundamentals of first aid in disease and mild asthma. The data confirm the results of other polls, that less than fifty percent of patients use Nitroglycerin if you experience angina, another thirty per cent have resorted to taking Validol, and the rest trying to endure the heartache, because they do not know what it is and not resort to medication.
So, let us determine the signs of coronary insufficiency – a sharp clenching pain in the chest in the heart area. They can radiate to the back, under the shoulder blade, in your left hand. Sometimes discomfort is felt in the epigastric region. This is the first sign of coronary insufficiency in which you need to immediately do two things:
- to reduce the load on the heart, thereby reducing the demand on oxygen;
- to normalize the blood flow to the heart.
For edema attack patients always need to carry the basic drugs – Nitroglycerin and Validol. Note that the Nitro has a better effect, so its availability is preferable. This drug dilates blood vessels (both coronary and peripheral), normalizes blood pressure, reduces the need heart of oxygen. In addition, the drug begins its action a minute later after the reception, which is very important to prevent the development of myocardial infarction. Make the drug should under the tongue, where it is absorbed the fastest. Take validol in the same way. If necessary, the drug can be taken again. After an attack of angina, you need to go to the clinic, where the doctor will develop a comprehensive plan of treatment for the disease consisting of the following positions:
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- General treatment includes the correct mode of work and rest, avoiding harmful habits, improving nutrition, the inclusion of physical education in the daily routine;
- special treatment – receiving antiarrhythmic and antianginalnyh drugs;
- other therapy required to treat diseases, use of anticoagulants, drugs for the treatment of chronic insufficiency.
Chronic coronary insufficiency treated with such preparations as Nitroglycerin, Sustac, Erinit, Intergarden, Chimes, Corentin, Verapamil, Amiodarone. If drugs to treat disease do not help, then it is possible to conduct coronary artery bypass surgery.