Decreased hematocrit: what does it mean, causes
Hematocrite number hct call one of the indicators of blood, the essence of which is to estimate the number of uniform elements of blood in relation to each other. Among the health workers hematocrite number often abbreviated as «hematocrit», which is not quite accurately reflects the essence of the term. The hematocrit is referred to as a special test tube with graduation marks with which and set hematocrite number. However, the term «hematocrit» is so firmly established in the vocabulary of everyday life that has become familiar to determine the number of gematokritnogo.
As you know, in a liquid medium of blood (plasma) has three main components – red cells, platelets and leukocytes. Of red blood cells contains more than platelets, and leukocytes. For example, a healthy person in one liter of blood has about five trillion red blood cells. Therefore, based on the number of gematokritnogo it is taken as the ratio of erythrocytes to other elements.
Determination of the number of gematokritnogo
To find out your hematocrit, it is necessary to take a blood test. The obtained blood with added anticoagulant against coagulation is placed in a centrifuge where it spins in the test tube with graduations at high speed. Because the different blood elements have different weight, they are fairly easy to separate from each other and find out the volume of each part.
After a stay of blood in the centrifuge according to the markings on the bulb you can determine the level of red blood cells. A large part of the tube bottom is occupied by red blood cells – they are heavier than other components, therefore, will occupy the lower part of the tube. Behind them will a lighter white blood cells and platelets, and the top attentatoires blood plasma. For easier determination of the number of gematokritnogo tube marked with graduations on one hundred percent, where accordingly placed a hundred MICS of the blood. Therefore, the resulting figure is considered the hematocrit.
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The norm indicator
Like most indicators of the state of the human body, hematocrite number changes throughout life. It is quite normal, because man grows, and he increases the volume of blood. However, the number of formed elements in the blood does not grow in direct proportion.
Therefore, the highest indicator of the number of gematokritnogo can be observed in newborns – it is sixty six percent, but by the age of one year the child can be diagnosed hematocrite the number is much lower – about thirty eight percent.
For fifteen years the hematocrit increases and takes the value of the lower threshold of the norm for an adult is fifty percent. On average, adult women normal have hematocrite number from thirty three to forty seven per cent, while in men the figure is slightly higher – forty-nine to fifty-four.
When you need to know hematocrite number?
Not so long ago hematocrite number was not determined in the General analysis of blood, and had to substitute the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. Earlier the figure was called the density of the blood, which is the same gematokrita. Now the doctors more often use indicators, such as hematocrite number. Research on hematocrite number is:
- for a General assessment of the blood;
- to establish that anemia;
- if you suspect polycythemia – increased red blood cells;
- when poliglobulii;
- to control the treatment of blood disorders;
- if you suspect internal bleeding;
- for the purpose of blood transfusion in severe conditions.
The reasons for lowering the number of gematokritnogo
The drop in the level of hematocrit may indicate serious violations of the hematopoietic function of the body and other pathological conditions. Doctors diagnose decrease in hematocrit at:
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Also lowered the hematocrit at the onset of pregnancy, but after a while its performance will again be the same. A low hematocrit is most often seen in pregnant women, and those women who recently became a mother. The same problem faced hematocrit and bedridden patients. But on the verge of lowering this indicator are smokers and those who abuse alcohol – their hematocrit close to minimum performance standards at any time may exceed these limits.
Risk to fall into this category and people with chronic illnesses of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular disorders. If you suspect a hematocrit below normal are blood tests and a full diagnosis of the organism. If the work of all systems and organs are normal, then worry no reason, it is only necessary from time to time to monitor the indicator of the number of gematokritnogo.
Therapy low hematocrit
If the cause of the decrease in hematocrit was anemia, to add to the diet foods that contain iron. In most cases, correction of the diet helps to bring the hematocrit back to normal. The patient is recommended to eat more liver, meat, nuts, eggs. It is useful to take vitamins with iron, and the pharmacy is always possible to buy baby butterscotch – Hematogen. In rare cases, doctors have resorted to the introduction of iron into the body intravenously.
If you increase the number of red blood cells in the blood hematocrit level is increased. The increase in this index will result in the following pathology:
About the hematocrit is a temporary condition of the body when the hematocrit level is determined as low, but the patient is absolutely healthy. What does it mean? This happens in some situations to completely healthy patients. For example, the hematocrit will be low in the following cases:
- if the vessel of the patient for a long time were under hemostatic tourniquet;
- if blood sampling was performed in the supine position;
- in the case of blood thinners (for example, after drawing blood to the site of the infusion injections).
The decrease in the number of gematokritnogo in pregnant women
The state of pregnancy affects the entire body women, assigning it a new function – gestation. It is reflected in the blood counts. Thus, during pregnancy increases the amount of blood plasma that percentage leads to the understandable reduction in the number of gematokritnogo. Therefore, a slight decrease is seen by physicians as variants of the norm. However, the hematocrit at the expectant mother may be critically reduced in the following cases:
- because of anemia;
- as a result of the introduction of large amounts of fluid.
Lowering the concentration of formed elements in the blood negatively affects the work of all systems and organs. In the first place increased stress experiencing heart, kidney and liver. The deteriorating condition of the pregnant woman – she complains of weakness, headache, increase in blood pressure. An elevated hematocrit is observed when:
- strong toxicosis, accompanied by profuse vomiting;
- excessive consumption of salt;
- edema in the last 3 months of pregnancy (called preeclampsia).
Low hematocrit in pregnant women requires careful examination. You need to understand what it is – a serious disease or a minor ailment that requires easy correction. After that, if necessary, assigned to special treatment under the supervision of a gynecologist and a therapist.