Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities: symptoms, treatment
Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is an inflammation of the vascular walls of veins, which are located under the muscle, with the formation in their lumen of a thrombus (blood clot prevent normal blood circulation). Most often pathological process affecting the lower limbs, rarely it can be found in the upper extremities and other departments.
Why is developing this disease?
There are several reasons for the development of this problem:
- a variety of injuries of the intima (inner wall of the vessel) and its response, inflammatory reaction;
- wounds, bruises, purulent foci of inflammation, located near the deep vein;
- the increase in normal blood clotting in the background of medication, hormonal failure or other reasons;
- varicose veins, which slows the normal flow of blood and promotes the formation of a blood clot.
According to statistics, this disease is more often experienced by women. This fact can be associated with pregnancy and frequently wearing of uncomfortable shoes with heels. The internal deep vein thrombosis usually occurs in patients older than 45 years, although in recent years there is a tendency to «rejuvenation» of the disease.
A key danger of the disease is the removal of a blood clot, it moves along the blood stream and clogging vital vessels such as the lungs. Such a clot becomes an embolus and can cause a pulmonary embolism (PE), which will cause death.
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Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease
The disease develops gradually. Rarely, the disease manifests immediately with the severe complications if the blood clot separation. Most often, patients pay attention to symptoms when the clot reaches impressive dimensions and almost completely covers the diameter of the vessel. Deep vein thrombophlebitis can be divided into acute and chronic. What are the symptoms of the acute form of most concern to patients:
Chronic thrombophlebitis, in contrast to the acute form, it is not the bright signs and symptoms, so for a long time can leak unnoticed for a person. Soreness of the feet occurs only on exertion, and edema are less pronounced than in the acute form.
How to diagnose the disease
For diagnosis of the disease carried examination of the patient and clarify the complaint and time of onset of the symptoms. To confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the problem using the following methods:
- Vascular ultrasound (Doppler);
- x-ray methods (angiography, venography).
Of great importance for primary diagnostics have special tests and symptoms, which provide the ability to suspect the disease without instrumental methods (sample Homans, Moses, etc.).
How to treat this disease?
Treatment of thrombophlebitis depends on the extent of damage of the veins and presence of complications. In the early stages the disease is treated with conservative methods:
With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and severe thrombophlebitis complications have resorted to surgical treatment:
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- sew the inferior Vena cava;
- remove the clot from the vein and restore patency of the vessels with the endoscopic equipment;
- installing the probe, check thrombi in the inferior Vena cava and carry out other operations.
Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities can cause a lot of problems to patients. It is important to notice the symptoms and to consult a specialist for treatment and prevention of complications.