Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities: symptoms, treatment

Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is an inflammation of the vascular walls of veins, which are located under the muscle, with the formation in their lumen of a thrombus (blood clot prevent normal blood circulation). Most often pathological process affecting the lower limbs, rarely it can be found in the upper extremities and other departments.

Why is developing this disease?

There are several reasons for the development of this problem:

  • a variety of injuries of the intima (inner wall of the vessel) and its response, inflammatory reaction;
  • wounds, bruises, purulent foci of inflammation, located near the deep vein;
  • the increase in normal blood clotting in the background of medication, hormonal failure or other reasons;
  • varicose veins, which slows the normal flow of blood and promotes the formation of a blood clot.

According to statistics, this disease is more often experienced by women. This fact can be associated with pregnancy and frequently wearing of uncomfortable shoes with heels. The internal deep vein thrombosis usually occurs in patients older than 45 years, although in recent years there is a tendency to «rejuvenation» of the disease.

A key danger of the disease is the removal of a blood clot, it moves along the blood stream and clogging vital vessels such as the lungs. Such a clot becomes an embolus and can cause a pulmonary embolism (PE), which will cause death.

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Clinical signs and symptoms of the disease

The disease develops gradually. Rarely, the disease manifests immediately with the severe complications if the blood clot separation. Most often, patients pay attention to symptoms when the clot reaches impressive dimensions and almost completely covers the diameter of the vessel. Deep vein thrombophlebitis can be divided into acute and chronic. What are the symptoms of the acute form of most concern to patients:

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  • Pain and discomfort in the lower extremities. Pulling, bursting pain in the lower leg, the calf and under the knee that is aggravated by walking and physical activity. This is due to the fact that the inflammation affects sensory nerve fibers located close to blood vessels. Pain increases with palpation of the affected vein.
  • Swelling and swelling of the feet. Impaired blood flow causes an overflow of blood vessels of the legs. The liquid component of blood out of the vasculature into the surrounding tissue. First it begins to swell the inner surface of the foot, especially in the evening. Subsequently, the swelling can spread to the entire foot and appear at any time of the day.
  • Change the color of the skin. Stagnation of blood in the capillaries causes breaks small blood vessels leads to redness and lividity of the skin in the course of the affected vein.
  • The appearance of venous ulcers. Poor blood circulation leads to the formation of erosions and nonhealing ulcers.
  • The change of temperature. The patient may experience increased body temperature as a response to inflammatory reaction in the body. In addition, the skin over the affected vein becomes hot, and in other parts it is paler.
  • Lesion of the superficial veins, which act on the skin in the form of ugly venous pattern. The overflow of the deep veins leads to disruption of blood flow in the superficial veins, which causes characteristic changes.
  • Chronic thrombophlebitis, in contrast to the acute form, it is not the bright signs and symptoms, so for a long time can leak unnoticed for a person. Soreness of the feet occurs only on exertion, and edema are less pronounced than in the acute form.
    Тромбофлебит глубоких вен нижних конечностей: симптомы, лечение

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    How to diagnose the disease

    For diagnosis of the disease carried examination of the patient and clarify the complaint and time of onset of the symptoms. To confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the problem using the following methods:

    • Vascular ultrasound (Doppler);
    • x-ray methods (angiography, venography).

    Of great importance for primary diagnostics have special tests and symptoms, which provide the ability to suspect the disease without instrumental methods (sample Homans, Moses, etc.).

    How to treat this disease?

    Treatment of thrombophlebitis depends on the extent of damage of the veins and presence of complications. In the early stages the disease is treated with conservative methods:

  • The blood thinners (anticoagulants). Representatives of: Heparin, etc.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Indomethacin, etc.) are used to eliminate inflammatory reaction, in addition they relieve pain. You cannot use for a long time and have patients with problems of the digestive tract.
  • Vitamins and angioprotectors. Means, strengthen the vascular wall, such as vitamin K, Ascorutin etc.
  • Local treatment involves the use of ointments and creams for pain relief (Diclofenac, etc.). Also use a healing ointment for the appearance of trophic disorders of the skin (Solcoseryl, etc.).
  • Wearing compression underwear, which improves the flow of blood from the veins.
  • Diet for thrombophlebitis is to ensure drinking regime, frequent fractional food products with gentle heat treatment.
  • Good effect gives use of physiotherapy: magnetotherapy and laser therapy, electrophoresis with drugs, hirudotherapy and Spa treatment.
  • With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and severe thrombophlebitis complications have resorted to surgical treatment:

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    • sew the inferior Vena cava;
    • remove the clot from the vein and restore patency of the vessels with the endoscopic equipment;
    • installing the probe, check thrombi in the inferior Vena cava and carry out other operations.

    Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities can cause a lot of problems to patients. It is important to notice the symptoms and to consult a specialist for treatment and prevention of complications.