Diffuse changes of myocardium: what is it?
Diffuse changes of a myocardium is a common pathological process that attacks the cells of the heart muscle. Currently, the medical community stresses the importance of these changes in the development and progression of heart failure in humans.
What it is – diffuse changes in the myocardium?
The myocardium is striated muscle of the heart that contracts and pumps the blood. Pathological process affecting all myocardial cells, called diffuse changes of a myocardium. They may have different origins, the severity of changes in myocytes and symptoms.
Diffuse changes of the heart muscle lead to deterioration of heart function, disorders of its form and reduce the distensibility of the myocardium. Pronounced changes detected in patients with severe heart failure, and moderate can occur in the absence of any subjective symptoms from the cardiovascular system.
Causes diffuse changes in the heart
Common pathological process in the heart may have a different origin. His reasons include:
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- Myocardial dystrophy.
- Diffuse myocarditis.
- Diffuse myocardiosclerosis.
- Excessive physical load.
- Taking certain drugs.
- Violations of water-electrolyte balance.
Myocardiodystrophy is diffuse disturbances in the heart, not associated with inflammatory processes. These changes develop due to undesirable chemical and biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for contraction of the heart. These lesions of cardiomyocytes are considered to be reversible. Myocardial may develop in beriberi (deficiency of vitamin B1), hypoxemia (reduction of oxygen levels in the blood), myasthenia gravis, myopathies and other diseases.
Diffuse myocarditis can be caused by infectious diseases, such as rheumatism, diphtheria, influenza, tuberculosis, typhoid and other diseases that cause inflammation in the heart muscle. In addition to infectious origin, myocarditis can be allergic or toxic.
When myocardiosclerosis cells of the heart muscle is gradually replaced by connective tissue. This leads to disruption of the elasticity of the heart and the development of diastolic heart failure. Most often, the myocardiosclerosis is a consequence of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries – the blood vessels supplying the heart.
Symptoms of diffuse changes in the myocardium
The clinical picture of a diffuse pathological process in the heart depends on the cause of its development and severity. For moderate changes, the person may not feel any heart problems, their presence can be detected at conducting of electrocardiography. In more severe cases, common pathological changes in the myocardium in humans can develop clinical signs, including symptoms of ischemia, and heart failure. Symptoms of ischemia with diffuse changes in the heart develop as a result of violations of blood supply to the heart muscle and include:
- Pain and discomfort in the heart.
- Heart rhythm abnormalities.
The symptoms of heart failure include:
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- Shortness of breath.
- Swelling in the legs.
- General weakness.
Diagnosis of diffuse abnormalities in the heart
Most people faced with the problem of diffuse abnormalities in the heart after carrying out an electrocardiography (ECG), which is a method of recording electrical signals from the myocardium. In diffuse abnormalities in the heart on the ECG often reveals nonspecific changes. As a rule, they relate to the processes of relaxation of cardiomyocytes after reduction. As the pathological process extends across a cardiac muscle, non-specific ECG changes are detected in almost all leads.
For diagnosis and identification of the cause may require the holding of echocardiography – ultrasound study of the heart. With its help it is possible to estimate structural changes of the heart, to assess its functional status.
Also conducted lab testing, which is used for the determination of the causes of diffuse lesions of the myocardium.
Treatment of diffuse changes in the heart
It should be understood that diffuse disturbances in heart is not a disease. On the one hand is a pathological process which can be the consequence of large number of diseases, and the other is ECG changes. Therefore, the choice of treatment depends on what caused these changes in the heart muscle.
However, there are guidelines that fit all (or almost all) people with diffuse changes in the myocardium. These recommendations do not pertain to medical or surgical treatment, they aim to change (modification) lifestyle. The same advice is useful for any healthy person who wants to prevent the development of heart disease. Recommendations for modifications of lifestyle include:
- A healthy diet, consisting in the use of whole-grain products, vegetables and fruits, legumes, low fat dairy and fish. Limit the consumption of red meat, palm and coconut oils, sugary foods and salt.
- Physical activity, which can reduce the risk of heart problems. Every person useful, aerobic exercise of moderate intensity (e.g. brisk walking) total duration for the week is 2.5 hours.
- Maintaining a healthy weight, which is very beneficial for heart health. In the presence of obesity should strive with the help of rational, balanced diet and exercise program to normalize weight.
- The restriction of the use of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol abuse contributes to the development of obesity and heart problems.
- Quitting Smoking.
- Stress control through meditation, yoga, exercise, Hobbies, music.