Drugs for hypertension: treatment

Hypertension is a disease that requires constant medical monitoring. If a patient with a confirmed diagnosis of hypertension stop taking medicines prescribed by the doctor, then sooner or later it would end in a sharp rise in blood pressure. Therefore, drugs that reduce pressure, you need to take daily, regardless of blood pressure.

Basic principles for the treatment of hypertension:

  • Treatment starts with the minimum dose of one antihypertensive drug (monotherapy).
  • The control treatment is carried out after 8 – 12 weeks, and after achieving a stable blood pressure – every 3 months.
  • Monotherapy is preferable to combination therapy (multiple drugs) as it has less side-effects caused by the combination of drugs.
  • The ineffectiveness of therapy produce a gradual increase in the dosage of the drug.
  • The ineffectiveness of high doses of a single agent is replaced by a drug from another class.
  • With the ineffectiveness of monotherapy moving to a combination therapy.
  • Group of drugs used to treat hypertension

    1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (iace).

    These include enalapril, Enap, Prestarium, lisinopril, Sokaris, berlipril and others. The mechanism of action is blocking the enzyme that transforms angiotensin I to angiotensin II, thereby preventing the increase in blood pressure. Drugs of this group have the smallest range of side effects, have no adverse effect on the metabolism of the patient. They can be applied in arterial hypertension in diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, disorders of the kidneys and protein in the urine.

    Medicines of this group cannot be used for pregnant women with hyperkalemia (high amounts of potassium in the blood) and stenosis (narrowing) of the renal arteries. They are successfully used in combined treatment regimens.

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    2. Beta-blockers (Atenolol, Concor, Metoprolol, Nebivolol, Obsidian and others).

    Previously, these drugs were widely used against hypertension. Now, given their side effects and the availability of more effective drugs, this group used less and less. When use of beta-blockers the patient may experience bradiaritmia (decrease heart rate), bronchospasm, hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar), depression, changeability of mood, insomnia, loss of memory. Accordingly, they cannot be applied to persons with bronchial-obstructive syndrome (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis), diabetes, and depression. A significant advantage of these drugs is a persistent effect. The permanence of HELL is achieved within 2 – 3 weeks.

    When prescribing this group required blood glucose monitoring, cardiac rhythm by ECG (monthly), the emotional state of the patient.

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    3. Inhibitors of the angiotensin II receptor (Losartan, Telmisartan, Eprosartan and others) is a new antihypertensive medications commonly used for hypertension.

    The mechanism of action of this group of drugs are based on indirect reduction of vasospasm through effects on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This system plays a crucial role in the regulation of numbers pressure. Therapeutic effect has a combination of these medications with thiazide diuretics. There are modern combined preparations comprising these groups. These include Gizaar (losartan in combination with gidrohlortiazidom), Micardis Plus (telmisartan and gidrokhlorisiazit) and others. In addition to maintaining normal values of pressure in the course of the studies, it was observed the influence of these drugs on reducing the size of the heart.

    4. Calcium channel blockers (Nifedipine, Amlodipine, Diltiazem, Cinnarizine).

    Medicine this group has the ability to block the transport of calcium into the cell, which reduces the energy reserves of cells. This, in turn, has an impact on myocardial contractility, reducing it, and on the coronary arteries, expanding them. This can occur a side effect in the form of tachycardia (rapid heart beat). Tablets for faster effect better dissolve.

    5. Thiazide diuretics (diuretics). It gidrokhlorisiazit, Indapamide and other.

    Despite the variety of modern medications the best action from therapy occurs when the combination of drugs of different groups with diuretics. But these drugs have number of side effects, so their use must be under the supervision of a physician. They can cause a reduction in the amount of potassium in the blood, increased levels of fat and sugar in the blood.

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    If the patient has hypertension of 2 degrees and above, then treatment will usually be combined as monotherapy may be ineffective.

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