Drugs to reduce blood sugar
Control blood sugar – the mainstay of treatment of diabetes. Selection of therapy depends on the type of diabetes, presence of complications and comorbidities.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes
The only effective treatment of type 1 diabetes is administration of insulin. Insulin is a natural hormone produced by the pancreas, which plays a major role in the metabolism of glucose in the body. There are many types of insulin used to treat diabetes. They differ in method of manufacture, the duration of the action in body and price. To determine the appropriate form of this drug and the required dosage can only endocrinologist.
Treatment of diabetes type 2
There are different medicines for lowering blood sugar in type 2 diabetes. These include:
- Sulfonylurea drugs – these stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to expand insulin. These drugs are used since the 1950-ies. There are three generations of these drugs. Chlorpropamide belongs to the first, second Glipizide and Glyburide, the third – Glimepiride. These funds usually need to take 1 or 2 times a day, before eating. They all have similar effects on glucose levels, but can have different side effects.
- Biguanides – reduce glucose levels, reducing its production by the liver. Representative of this group is Metformin. It also reduces blood sugar by increasing the sensitivity of muscle tissue to insulin. Typically, it is taken twice a day. Side effects of Metformin may be diarrhea, but to reduce the probability of its occurrence may be taking the drug with food.
- Meglitinide is a pill that decrease the level of glucose by stimulating the beta cells of the pancreas. These drugs represented by Repaglinide and Nateglinide, make you need three times a day, before each main meal.
- Thiazolidinediones – these drugs help insulin better to exert its effect on muscle and fat tissue and also decrease the production of glucose by the liver. To this group belong Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone. Both drugs effectively lower the glycosylated hemoglobin and, as a rule, cause very few side effects. However, there are concerns regarding increased risk of developing heart failure.
- Inhibitors dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a new group of medicines, which can improve the level of glycosylated haemoglobin without causing hypoglycaemia. They prevent the destruction of the natural chemicals GLP-1. GLP-1 reduces glucose levels in the body, but very quickly falls apart. Slowing down the process of disintegration of GLP-1, DPP-4 inhibitors allow to keep the activity of this substance for longer, reducing glucose levels only when they are promoted. These drugs do not cause weight gain, have a neutral or positive effect on cholesterol levels. The DPP-4 inhibitors belong to Sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin and Alogliptin.
- Inhibitors nitroglycerol Transporter-2 – block the action of protein function is the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, making it in large quantities excreted in the urine. Medicines belonging to this group are Canagliflozin and Drugs. As these funds increase the level of glucose in the urine, side effects can include urinary tract infection.
- Inhibitors alpha-glucosidase is a means of reducing glucose levels through blocking the breakdown of starches in the intestine. These include Acarbose and Miglitol. They also slow the breakdown of some sugars. Their action slows the rise of glucose levels after eating. These medications must be taken with food. Side effects of inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase are flatulence and diarrhea.
- The bile acid resins is lipid-lowering drugs that can also lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. This group of drugs belongs Colesevelam. The mechanism of influence Colesevelam on glucose levels is completely unknown. Since this drug is not absorbed into the bloodstream, it is generally safe can take patients that other means is contraindicated due to liver disease. Side effects of bile acid resins can be bloating and constipation.
- Oral combination therapy. Since all tablets are drugs that reduce glucose, have different mechanisms of action, they can be administered in combination. For example, it is possible to take biguanides and sulfonylureas. Combination therapy selects an endocrinologist, based on individual patient characteristics.
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Many patients with type 2 diabetes may also need insulin. This is decided by the endocrinologist, which selects the appropriate drug and dose.