ECG: results of the transcript in adults and children, the rate in the table photo
ECG (electrocardiogram) is one of the most common and valuable in the diagnosis surveys. It allows you to identify problems with the heart. This article explains, in some cases, doing an ECG, and how to decipher the charts.
Indications for ECG
The survey is carried out under the following conditions:
- discomfort and pain in the heart;
- shortness of breath;
- the appearance of a heart murmur;
- extreme weakness;
- a patient of rheumatism;
- cardiogram of the heart necessary, before any surgery;
- assessment of physical form;
- with the aim of prevention, especially among individuals older than 40 years.
What data can be obtained with an ECG?
The electrocardiogram allows to define the following parameters:
- Heart rate;
- the presence of arrhythmias (heart rhythm disorders);
- pathology of intracardiac conduction;
- to identify damage to the heart muscle;
- to clarify the localization of ischemia, find out the amount of myocardial necrosis;
- to diagnose myocardial damage toxic etiology;
- to determine the presence of electrolyte disturbances, particularly changes in the exchange of potassium and magnesium.
The value of the elements of the ECG
The electrocardiogram reflects the electrical activity of the myocardium and registered in a curve with standard elements P, Q, R, S, and T. the ECG Recording using a special device and electrodes. The value of each of the elements of the ECG are presented in the table below:
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The element of EKG
Responsible for the depolarization of the Atria. Its amplitude is measured from isoline to the top and is 0.5 – 2.5 mm. the Length is measured from the beginning to the end of the prong and 0.06 – 0.1 s. Large amplitude indicates an increase in size of the right atrium. Long says the changes in the left atrium.
The PQ interval
Reflects atrioventricular conduction. In a healthy person the duration may vary depending on the heart rate, body mass and gender, and averages of 0.12 – 0.2 s Increase in this index indicates a blockade.
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The QRS complex
Corresponds to the excitation of the ventricles. Its duration reflects the intraventricular conduction and the amplitude of the teeth varies considerably depending on the placement of the heart and bends when recording ECG. The normal duration of the complex is 0.06 – 0.1 s.
Is important for the diagnosis of necrotic changes in the heart. Physiological prong in its amplitude cannot be more than ¼ of the R-wave, and in duration – no more than 0.03 s.
The ST segment
The normal ECG – when the specified segment is on the contour or deviates from it is maximum at 1 mm (+/ -). If there is damage to the heart muscle, this segment deviates significantly from the contours.
The T Wave
Reflects the repolarization of the ventricles. A normal ECG contains only positive teeth T (except AVR) with a rounded top. During ischemia and hypoxia as the prong becomes negative, with a sharp top.
The QRST interval
Tells about the electric systole of the heart. This interval is 0,36 – 0,44 C. Upon electrolytic dissociation or cardiosclerosis it is increasing.
Transcript of the electrocardiogram
It is performed in a specific order:
- Definition of heart rhythm. The right rhythm corresponds to equal intervals of R-R. for different values between the specified teeth say about abnormal heart rhythm.
- Determination of heart rate. To take account of the speed with which the survey took place and the number of cells between the teeth of R. in adults, the average is 60 – 90 cuts/min.
- Evaluate the tooth R and conclude that the rhythm of the heart. It must be sinus, in the presence of another excitation source parameters of the tooth change.
- The results of the measurements of each tooth and segment indicate the state of conduction of the myocardium.
- Estimate the location of the electrical axis of the heart. When her shift to draw conclusions about the presence of certain heart problems.
The final evaluation of the results after careful analysis of each element of the ECG.
ECG features of a child
Among the main differences are the following:
- the frequency of cardiac contractions up to 3 years is an average of 110 beats/min., in five years, heart rate decreases; in adolescents this parameter reaches values that are considered normal in adults (60 – 90 beats).
- prong R in children is not higher than 0.1 s;
- the QRS complex is 0.6 – 0.1;
- electric axis without any changes;
- the QRST interval of not more than 0.4 s, and the PQ interval is 0.2 s.
Before reading an EKG, be aware that there are many factors that can affect the results of the survey. These include:
- technical failures;
- the arrangement of the electrodes;
- incorrect preparation for the examination; before removing ECG banned a lot there, or perhaps to drink beverages (coffee, alcohol, strong tea), which can affect heart rate; you should also avoid physical stress and stressful situations.
Examples of ECG with interpretation
If when assessing ECGs detect heart rate 144 beats/min., equal intervals, R-R, widening of QRS complexes, equal intervals of QQ, the increase in the interval of 0.09 to QR with the presence of pathological Q wave and ST increase over the contour, we conclude that sinus tachycardia, the presence of the transition of the blockade bundle branch block and myocardial infarction in the acute form.
Heart rate 75уд/min, equal intervals between the prongs R, PQ is equal to 0.16, QRS – 08с 0, and QT – 0,36, the growth of teeth R in chest leads and the presence of the transition zone at V3. The normal location of the electrical axis. In this case, the results indicate an ECG, which is recorded in a healthy person.
In the presence of heart of ectopic foci of excitation on the ECG, record the appropriate changes. So, when the atrial premature beat see cardiac cycles, and changes in polarity of P wave or its deformation. When you beat in the upper parts of the Atria teeth R do not differ from the norm, however, detect a compensatory pause. When you beat in the middle sections of R is deformed, reduced or becomes biphasic. When you beat in the lower portions of the atrial negative prong watch R.
If you have the correct QRS complexes during sinus rhythm and of P wave, which is superimposed on the T wave, it is concluded the presence of ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia.
If on the ECG there are no teeth R and are the so-called chaotic f waves, intervals R-R with different duration, the QRS complex is normal or only slightly deformed because of the imposition of the cardiac complexes wave f, conclude that the development of atrial fibrillation.
When it detects any changes on the ECG, the doctor prescribes additional methods of examination. As a rule, echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart), allowing more carefully to assess the condition of the myocardium.