Emergency care in myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction — everyone knows about its danger. But there is hardly a man, not associated with medicine, who knows the first signs of a heart attack, and most importantly – effective measures of the urgent help to save the patient’s life. To these questions and get professional answers our article.

Myocardial infarction: what is it and what are its symptoms?

Infarction — necrosis of cardiac muscle caused by acute disruption of blood flow in it due to blockage of the feeding vessel by a blood clot. After 20 to 30 mins from the start of acute myocardial ischemia triggered irreversible processes, and muscle tissue dies. It is therefore important to quickly identify a heart attack and provide timely aid. A typical pattern of myocardial infarction:

  • Strong retrosternal pain, squeezing, or pressing character. Irradiation of them in the shoulder, neck, jaw and under the shoulder blade on the left side in most cases indicates a serious lack of blood supply to the heart muscle.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Unfounded fear is inherent in all cardiac diseases with pain syndrome.
  • Pressure the first day is often increased, and then steadily below the normal level.

Especially dangerous is the emergence of such symptoms in humans:

  • with high blood pressure;
  • with diabetes;
  • smokers with the experience;
  • with identified high cholesterol;
  • who are overweight and obese.

Symptoms of a heart attack quite variable, often sharp as hiding behind the less dangerous diseases. Options symptoms of a heart attack:

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  • Gastrolychnis — pain in the stomach and heartburn, are often symptoms of acute abdomen, falling a/d, increased heart rate, weakness. Of antacids (gaviscon, Almagel, etc.) in acute heart attack does not give relief. A heart attack is only diagnosed by ECG.
  • Stenokardicheskie — caused heart pain may be preceded by physical exertion (climbing stairs, walking) or nervous tension. The pain subsides at rest, and pills of Validol or Nitroglycerin only reduces its intensity. So often the patient with such manifestations of myocardial necrosis comes to the therapist and waiting for their turn.
  • Asthma — symptoms develop on the type of asthma where the main symptoms (difficulties with breathing and severe pain) may be missing. From taking asthma means suffocation persists.
  • Cerebral runs in the form of violations of cerebral circulation. The patient marked confusion, trouble understanding speech, and pronunciation of simple words.
  • «Dumb» is the most dangerous variant manifestations of a heart attack, is often found in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by the absence of pain and shortness of breath and fatigue, occurring after minor physical exertion, sometimes remain without attention. The patient takes a heart attack in his legs and exposes himself to the risk of extensive necrosis of the myocardium and, as consequence, to grave danger.
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First aid: algorithm of actions

  • The position of the patient

It is not always advisable to put the person with heart pain in bed. The optimal position is lying down with a raised pillow head. It is not necessary to lift the head, if the person dropped the a/d and observed a weak pulse. Patients with severe shortness of breath to facilitate respiration better to sit down on the floor.
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  • The receiving cardiac medications

Put the patient under the tongue Nitroglycerin tablet. Repeat after 15 min. if pain not gone. Previously practiced tactics (Validol sublingual every 5 min up to 6 pills in a row) is not applied. Validol has a reflex action and improve the blood supply to the myocardium. Is also not tenable and drinking Valokordin – this drug can be taken only to relieve emotional tension and eliminate fear.

  • Aspirin

It is the taking Aspirin at a dose of 300 mg (approximately half pill) can save the life of a patient with a heart attack. Be sure the aspirin should be chewed for faster effects.

  • Pressure measurement

Action correct, assuming that the tonometer will be on hand. Do not waste time searching apparatus for measuring pressure.

  • Call ambulance

It is not necessary to wait, when will affect Nitroglycerin. The delay in the delivery of the patient to the clinic for emergency care for myocardial infarction may cost him his life. When contacting an ambulance should be informed about the symptoms and duration of their symptoms, clearly dictate the location of the patient. Next appeared the police may also assist in the rapid transportation of the patient: either be taken to a patrol car, or stop a passing car.

Important: it is strictly forbidden to attach to the chest of the patient warmer. Such a measure could aggravate the patient’s condition, increase the pain and suffocation.

Doctors believed that I had cured the hypertension!

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First aid to the patient in an unconscious state

If the patient after complaints heartache lost consciousness, fixed heart or fluttering and thready pulse, it is necessary to arrange for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Well, if those around would be nurses or doctors. Standard medical assistance to an unconscious person:

  • Option 1 — chest massage — a vigorous pressure with the palms (one is on the other «crosswise», the sternum should bend inwards by 3 cm) in the region of the heart with a frequency of 2 times per sec.
  • Option 2 (preferably, two people with skills CPR) — chest compressions alternating with artificial respiration «mouth to mouth»/»mouth to nose».
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The patient should be laid on a hard surface or floor. CPR performed prior to arrival of emergency physician! Cardiac arrest after 8 – 10 minutes without the provision of intensive care leads to the death of brain cells.

A heart attack is a dangerous condition, but only in your power to save the life of a loved one. Knowledge of the rules of provision of nursing care (giving meds, measure a/d, to carry out cardiac massage) will help the patient to reach the clinic alive and get expert medical help.