Encephalopathy in children: what is it?
Encephalopathy is a number of disorders of the brain, leading to pathologies in human development. In children this disease can be acquired or congenital form. A congenital form of the disease in most cases is inherited, to identify symptoms in the early stages rather difficult.
The most severe consequences of encephalopathy in newborns, the development of bilirubinemia forms of the disease, the occurrence of hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, down syndrome. Acquired encephalopathy occurs as a result of hypertension, brain injuries, intoxication with harmful chemical substances, etc.
Classification of encephalopathy
The most difficult to treat is considered residual encephalopathy. It can be congenital or acquired, i.e. the result of any disease. The most common cause of the residual encephalopathy be infectious diseases, inflammation, injuries of the skull and cerebral circulatory disorders. With early diagnosis of the pathology and proper treatment can restore almost all functions of the brain, but in some cases, violations may not appear until a certain point. This disease is responsible of the most severe consequences when encephalopathy, among which the celebrated epilepsy and cerebral palsy.
Discirculatory encephalopathy of the brain – another kind of disease that is able to cause changes in the nerve cells of the brain. There is the appearance of encephalopathy due to vascular insufficiency, infectious or viral diseases (hepatitis, Botkin’s disease, pneumonia or influenza complications), vascular aneurysms, and blood disorders.
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The signs of discirculatory encephalopathy are shown in the form of a sleep disorder. The child in the evening, cranky and can’t sleep, sleep is restless. In addition to this, there may be dizziness, hearing problems and vision. If time does not go to the doctor, the situation may at some time not get worse, remaining stable and hard. But after a while the kid will chase fainting, vegetative-vascular dystonia and seizures.
Perinatal encephalopathy occurs either in the last trimester of pregnancy or in the first week of life. Provoke pathology can stress, trauma, poor nutrition and the diseases transferred by the mother during pregnancy. Encephalopathy can be the result of birth trauma, especially if the child is too big and it passes through the birth canal difficult. This type of encephalopathy in ninety percent of cases are curable, provided, however, that the disease was detected early, and parents as paid attention to the treatment of the child.
Bilirubin encephalopathy occurs in a child whose blood is not compatible with the mother’s RH factor or group. To facilitate the occurrence of this form of pathology can and some diseases – toxoplasmosis, sepsis or diabetes in the mother, hypothyroidism, hemorrhage. As a result, the blood-brain protective barrier and increases its permeability, and bilirubin that has not passed processing by the liver, begins to poison the brain of the child. Signs bilirubinemia encephalopathy – lethargy, refusal to eat, decreased muscle tone, a scream and a sudden stop of breathing. Motion of child painful. Aggravation of all symptoms occurs by 2 to 4 months of life the baby when the picture resembles cerebral palsy.
The signs of encephalopathy in a child
In the newborn period to diagnose the disease can be difficult. Parents after discharge often do not suspect that it is, and attribute the symptoms to other causes. However, there are a number of signs that will help encourage to undertake further diagnostic procedures. Newborns and babies under a year encephalopathy can be suspected by the following symptoms:
- weak cry after birth;
- bluish color of the skin;
- prolonged crying for no apparent reason;
- frequent regurgitation;
- violation of reflection;
- the occurrence of seizures.
The older children encephalopathy may manifest the following symptoms:
- headaches, up to severe migraine;
- restless sleep;
- poor memory;
- fatigue even from a short-term game;
- asthenic syndrome;
- vomiting, nausea;
- pallor of the skin;
- excessive emotionality, possible outbreaks of aggression;
- disorders of vision;
- problems with orientation in space and time;
- my fast heartbeat.
Symptoms are manifested in different ways. Basically, the child symptoms are present selectively, some of them are aggravated, and others disappear. When the first symptoms of the disease need to undergo further diagnosis to identify pathology. When you confirm the encephalopathy of varying degrees, children are put on dispensary registration.
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Diagnosis of the disease
Primary diagnosis is based on medical history, further a child is prescribed a number of special studies, such as:
Treatment of encephalopathy
When mild symptoms of the disease may outpatient treatment. If the Central nervous system is affected to a large extent, must stay in the hospital. Depending on the type of disease determines treatment of the child, it is possible to conduct support activities, such as blood transfusion, artificial pulmonary ventilation, power probe, etc.
To maintain the children of the water balance and salt metabolism resort to infusion of glucose solution, preparations of magnesium, potassium and ascorbic acid. If muscle hypertonicity prescribers or Baclofen Mydocalm, anticonvulsant therapy is based on the means of Phenobarbital. Hydrocephalic syndrome facilitate the use of Diazepam and Furosemide.
Children with encephalopathy should undergo physiotherapy treatments, physiotherapy, to massage. In the spring and summer shows rehabilitation in sanatoriums.