Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets: table

All blood cells are descended from the same stem cell precursor, which is located in the bone marrow. Despite the fact that they all have a common origin, their functions and involvement in different processes are very different. Let us consider what are these cells and what is their main value in the human body.

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells (the second name – «red blood») do not have nuclei, and their shape resembles a biconcave disc. This structure allows them to increase the area of the cell in half, which gives the possibility to transport more substances. All red blood cells is a special protein hemoglobin, which contains iron. The main function of these cells is the transport of gases: they carry into the cell the oxygen and carried out of her carbon dioxide. In addition, they can carry proteins, amino acids, enzymes, hormones and other substances.

A protective role of these cells is that they participate in reactions of the immune system and maintain a certain balance in the bloodstream. Due to their content of hemoglobin and erythrocytes is able to normalize the acid-alkaline level in the blood and to regulate water exchange. Live these cells after leaving the bone marrow within 120 – 130 days and then destroyed in the liver and spleen. From the remains of the destroyed red blood cells is formed one of the components of bile.

The below table shows the average number of erythrocytes in the blood of different groups of people.

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Population

Red blood cell count, 1012/l

male

4 – 5

female

3,7 – 4,7

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newborns

5,3 – 6,1

children 2 – 7 years

4 – 4,5

Their normal number may slightly fluctuate. In pathological conditions, a decrease in the number of red blood cells (erythropenia), better known as anemia. The increase in the number of erythrocytes is called polycythemia. The most frequent causes of eritropenia:

  • blood loss of different nature;
  • lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid;
  • pathology of bone marrow;
  • endocrine disorders;
  • some infectious diseases, etc.

The reason for the abnormally high number of red blood cells may be cancer or taking certain medications.

Leukocytes

This so-called «white cells». They come in different shapes and sizes. There are several groups of leukocytes:

  • Granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils.
  • Agranulocytes: lymphocytes, monocytes.
  • Эритроциты, лейкоциты, тромбоциты: таблица

    Normal white blood cell count in a healthy person in the range of 4 – 9 x 109/l in neonates and children up to years this figure is slightly higher: 6 – 15 x 109/l. the table presents the absolute and relative values of these cells in a standard blood test.

    Elements of «white blood»

    Percentage (%)

    The absolute number (х109/l)

    Neutrophils sticks.

    2 – 4

    0,08 – 0, 35

    Neutrophils segment.

    47 – 67

    2,0 – 5,9

    Eosinophils

    1 – 2

    0,02 – 0,44

    Basophils

    0 – 1

    0 – 0,08

    Lymphocytes

    25 – 35

    1 – 3

    Monocytes

    2 – 6

    0,08 – 0,05

    If leukocytes are above normal, then the patient is diagnosed with leukocytosis. It happens in norm and at a pathology. Physiological leukocytosis is found:

    • After a meal. The number of cells grows to hinder the flow of foreign agents with food. Rarely, but after eating their number may slightly exceed the limit of the rules. That is why the blood on an empty stomach or warn the doctor about the time of the last meal.
    • Under stress. It has a safety mechanism, and the number of leukocytes increases.
    • After heavy physical exertion.
    • During pregnancy to protect the fetus.

    Abnormal growth of white blood cells is most often observed in inflammation and infection. In addition, the growth of white blood cells observed in blood cancer. Has value not only the absolute number of leukocytes, but the percentage of the different types of these cells. So, high neutrophils and sticks talking about inflammation, and growth of eosinophils – allergies and helminth infection. Low white blood cells (leukopenia) are in the following situations:

    • acute leukemias;
    • HIV infection;
    • injuries and abnormalities of the bone marrow;
    • the intake of special medicines (cytostatics etc.);
    • the radiation exposure;
    • the deficiency of certain vitamins and minerals;
    • sepsis etc.

    Platelets

    These cells resemble plates of small size. They are formed from giant cells called megakaryocytes that reside in bone marrow. In these cells no nucleus but have numerous granules. When a platelet encounters a site of damage in the vessel wall, it starts snuggle of spikes and jagged. This mechanism helps to stop the bleeding. The average person the number of platelets in normal ranges of 200 – 400 thousand in 1 mm. In women this figure is slightly less, especially during periods of menstrual bleeding.

    The decline in the number of platelets is called thrombocytopenia, and increased – thrombocytosis. Under normal conditions, physiological growth of these cells can occur when pain, stress or excessive exercise. In pathology the increase in the platelet count occurs after splenectomy (removal of spleen) or in diseases of the bone marrow.

    The main role of platelets is to maintain hemostasis and stop bleeding. In the granules and on the membrane of these cells concentrated platelet special factors that make possible the formation of blood clots and the sealing of the damaged portion of the vessel. In addition, they possess phagocytic activity and protect the body from disease-causing agents along with leukocytes.

    Blood cells and their normal values are of great importance in maintaining the human body. Each group of cells performs its functions. The deviation of their values from the norm indicates the development of the pathological process in the body.