ESR in the blood: what is it?
Laboratory tests accompany almost every case of a person in medical facility. The tests are of great assistance in the diagnosis of the alleged disease. First, as a rule, the basic standard survey becomes a common blood test – quantitative differentiated characteristics of plasma suspensions, including the number of Hb and the value of the ESR.
The composition of the blood
Human blood is a suspension of many blood particles in the relatively liquid portion – plasma. Blood cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are free to move the plasma through the vascular trunks, carrying out numerous functions of the bloodstream:
- erythrocytes, the most major and specific weighty, carry oxygen;
- Taurus leukocyte and thrombocyte plates are much smaller and lighter than red blood cells, onio provide immunity and hemostasis.
What is ESR?
In the body, in vivo, due to the balance and antikoagulyaim hemostatic factors, blood retains the flow properties. If it is placed in a test tube, in vitro, it will curdle. But when standing vertically positioned capillary tube-vitro analyze a patient’s blood, mixed with anticoagulant, after a certain period of time divided with the formation of two layers:
- the bottom, which Scopata besieged by the specific gravity of a massive blood elements;
- in the upper layer, is relatively transparent, still looking for the plasma part.
By measuring the height of a transparent line segment in millimeters after an hour of settling, get the result of ESR.
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That affect the ESR?
Change the properties and composition of plasma and shaped parts of the blood can speed up and slow down the process of settling erythrocyte cells, which can result in either decrease and increase in ESR. As soon as the shaped part of the blood forms a sediment in the capillary depends on:
- rheological, electrochemical properties and biochemical composition of the plasma environment, which prevents the effects of gravity and the precipitating corpuscles;
- the state itself blood cells and their quantitative content in the blood.
What causes the change in erythrocyte sedimentation rate?
Immediate causes affecting erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a deviation in the ratio of high and low molecular protein fractions of the plasma accompanying the over all immune and inflammatory processes in the body. They determine the degree of resistance of plasma sedimentation of erythrocytes and their degree of aggregation.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a General, i.e. non-specific signal of inflammation or autoimmune shifts, because it increases elevated levels of plasma non-specific markers of inflammation, called acute phase proteins:
Conversely, the lower the ESR the higher content of proteins-albumin, which is typical for physiological, healthy biological processes.
Physiological variations in ESR
At absolute health examined the value of ESR can be influenced by many physiological factors:
- Initially it is somewhat larger in women than in men.
- It inevitably grows as a person grows older.
- Its value in a healthy person varies during the day, peaking to the middle of the day can change when overheating and overcooling, on the background of acute emotional reactions when adrenaline rush.
- Physiological changes in protein composition in plasma during pregnancy are accompanied by elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
- The acceleration of the production of erythrocytes sedimentation during the periodic menstrual bleeding is also considered to be a physiological norm.
The value of ESR in norm
At birth for babies considered normal up to 2 mm/HR to 8-day age of the child it must grow up to 4 mm/hour, and at the age of 14 days – up to 17 mm/h For healthy women is characteristic of the interval from 0 to 23 mm/hour. Moreover, depending on their age, the boundaries of the rules look like this:
- for girls up to 20 years – 18 mm/hour;
- for women under 55 years of age – 21 mm/hour;
- for women from 56 years – 23 mm/h.
For healthy young and middle-aged men typical ESR in the range of up to 16 mm/hour:
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- for boys up to 20 years of normal results will be from 0 to 12 mm/hour;
- for men aged 20 to 56 years – up to 14 mm/hour;
- for men from 56 years old tend to a sharp increase this figure to 90-year age of the subject within the normal range can be up to 32 mm/hour.
Sedimentation rate in uncomplicated pregnancy
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate has a different rate at different stages of gestation. In addition, for a perfectly healthy pregnant women of varying degrees of fatness, the magnitude of the ESR will also be different:
- The norm in pregnant women a full build during the first half of the gestational period from 18 to 48 mm/h; in the second half – from 30 to 70 mm/hour.
- The norm for a thin in pregnant women during the first half of gestation is from 21 to 62 mm/HR; during the second half – from 40 to 95 mm/hour.
As evidenced by the increase in ESR?
Syndrome of accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be regarded as a signal about the possible existence in the body following pathological processes:
- infectious-inflammatory diseases;
- endocrinological failures;
- autoimmune lesions.
Extremely high numbers in ESR are observed in allergic vasculitis, giant cell arthritis, hyperfibrinogenemia, disease valdenstroma.
As evidenced by slowing of the ESR?
The lower values are observed in patients with a number of diseases:
- accompanied by increased blood viscosity;
- reducing blood levels of protein;
- lowering the level of fibrinogen in the blood.
Lowering the ESR, usually accompanies the course:
- heart failure;
- sickle-cell anemia.
The diagnostic value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESR is an indicator of the presence in the subjects of inflammation, nonspecific (that is common) signal the need for detailed examination for the presence of inflammation of any etiology. His changes may not serve the needs of differential diagnosis as an independent tool. Only together with other indicators it enables reliable determination of the etiology and the severity of inflammation.