Essential hypertension: what is it?

To date, essential hypertension is widespread among the adult population. One in five people over the age of 30 has this diagnosis. Increased blood pressure can lead to serious and irreversible changes in the body, and sometimes the death of the patient. Therefore, each episode of pressure increase should be taken seriously. Treatment of this condition should begin as early as possible, because each subsequent attack of hypertension may be the last for the patient.

Essential (primary) hypertension. What is it?

This term unites a condition in which an adult increases blood pressure more than 140/90 mm Hg.St. twice in a row on different days. The specific factors and causes of this condition no. Given that this disease has no specific symptoms and characteristic laboratory and instrumental signs, diagnosis is exposed only if the possible hypertension caused by specific reason.

Types and forms of arterial hypertension

The nature of the flow distinguish between benign and malignant arterial hypertension. In the first case, blood pressure rises occasionally, complaints from the patient are virtually absent, the General condition is not broken, pressures can be easily reduced by the action of medicines. In the second case, the pressure rises sharply to high numbers, medical correction lends itself poorly, often affects the internal target organs (brain, heart, blood vessels, kidneys or eyes).

According to the severity of hypertension is divided into 1, 2 and 3 degrees. The easiest first degree – this increase in pressure above 140/90, the second is more than 160/100, and the third of more than 180/110. 1, 2 severity not manifested clinically, stage 3 is characterized by lesions of target organs, entailing certain clinical manifestations. 2 the degree is determined by instrumental examination (EKG, heart ultrasound, fundus examination, radiography). The factors contributing to the development of essential hypertension:

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  • patient age (men over 55 and women over 65 years of age);
  • alcohol abuse and Smoking;
  • elevated levels of blood cholesterol or atherosclerosis;
  • genetic predisposition (cases of hypertension in the family in the immediate family);
  • pathologically overweight (obesity);
  • physical inactivity (sedentary lifestyle);
  • endocrine diseases (particularly diabetes);
  • stress and mental strain;
  • excessive consumption of salt or salty foods.

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The symptoms of essential hypertension

Clinically, the disease manifests itself only in the third degree when the affected target organs. Symptoms, respectively, are associated with dysfunction of these organs.

  • Cardiac involvement is manifested in myocardial hypertrophy – overgrowth of the heart muscle. This is due to the fact that the heart has to overcome resistance in the form of high pressure vessels to push blood. Forces it needs more. That is why there is an increase in the number of cardiac muscle cells, and it increases in size. Appearance of hypertrophy of left heart significantly increases the risk of complications of arterial hypertension in myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, arrhythmias.
  • Brain damage occurs as a result spasm of small blood vessels resulting in headache, dizziness, tinnitus and fatigue. In severe cases can occur microinfarcts or mini-strokes, which lead to lower intelligence and memory.
  • Kidney damage occurs as a result spasm of small blood vessels that deliver nutrients and oxygen to kidney tissue. This leads to a violation of their excretory functions. In the urine will appear protein, creatinine and urea. This will eventually lead to the development of chronic renal failure.
  • The vascular lesions. When increased blood pressure is spasm absolutely all the small peripheral vessels. Clinically this may manifest as intermittent claudication or numbness in the hands.
  • Eye damage occurs as a result of spasm of blood vessels of the retina. Hence the reduced vision up to blindness.
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    Complications and consequences of essential hypertension:

  • Hypertensive crisis – a sharp increase in blood pressure to high numbers, which is accompanied by a violation of the General condition of the patient.
  • Hypertensive heart increase heart size to large sizes, resulting in the function of the heart muscle are violated. Such a heart may cause myocardial infarction (death of part of heart muscle as the result of oxygen starvation), heart failure (exhaustion of the heart muscle, stopping her work and the death of the patient), atrial fibrillation (abnormally fast heart rate, which can result in a cardiac arrest), heart failure (the patient may be in the form of dyspnea, cough and tachycardia).
  • Stroke is the death of tissue of the brain as a result of spasm of the vessel and oxygen starvation of nerve cells.
  • Blindness develops as a result of hemorrhages in the retina of the eye, swelling of the nipple of the optic nerve.
  • Dementia (dementia) – develops as a result of spasm of the small vessels of the brain.