External hydrocephalus of the brain: what is it?
Today, with hydrocephalic syndrome is born every 500 – 1000 the newborn baby, the death rate from this disease among adults and children is about 5%. The causes of hydrocephalus can be counted more than 150, so today this disease is more urgent than it was before. The study of its treatment in by the leading neurologists of the world. Knowledge that can lead to external hydrocephalus and how to fight it, will help to avoid this disease and its consequences.
What happens in the brain during the development of hydrocephalus?
Normal tissue of the brain is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid – the fluid produced vessels. It is situated in the so-called venous sinuses. Also, this fluid fills the cavities (ventricles) inside the brain. The quantity of CSF in an adult and child must be constant. This is accomplished thanks to its constant circulation. During the day, an adult produces about half a liter of cerebrospinal fluid and the same amount is absorbed into the veins of the brain. So is its constant updating.
Hydrocephalus develops in case, if production of CSF exceeds its outflow. This happens due to various reasons. There are internal hydrocephalus, when fluid builds up within the system of ventricles of the brain, and external hydrocephalus, when the fluid accumulates outside the brain under his covers.
What is external hydrocephalus of the brain?
It is a disease of the brain, which can occur either as an independent disease or as a complication of some other pathology (trauma, neoplasm, infection, stroke). The disease is characterized by increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid, which accumulates under the meninges, and subsequently penetrates the tissue of the brain. The increase in the number of CSF can occur in the following cases:
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- as a result of violations of movement (circulation) of CSF, when in the course of flow occurs the obstruction (narrowing, compression of the tumor);
- the result is malabsorption of CSF into the venous system;
- as a result of increased production (education) of the CSF.
As a result of all these processes is the density of the medulla is greatly reduced, since it becomes saturated with liquid, brain function is also violated.
The types of external hydrocephalus
Depending on the origin of the disease there are:
- The congenital form, when the disease occurs as a result of pathology in the prenatal period (hypoxia, infection), the pathology of birth (birth trauma) or postpartum period, and as a result of abnormal development of the brain.
- Acquired a form, when hydrocephalus develops on the background of brain tumours, inflammatory or infectious diseases (meningitis, arachnoiditis, encephalitis), hemorrhage inside the ventricles of the brain, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, alcohol or toxic encephalopathy and other things.
Depending on the mechanism of development of hydrocephalus are divided into:
- The closed (occlusive) when there is an occlusion (obstruction) litwareproposal ways or swelling externally, either by a blood clot inside. Share it in the proximal hydrocephalus, when a blockage occurs at the level of the ventricles of the brain, and distal hydrocephalus, when a blockage occurs at the level of basal cisterns.
- Open (disregarding), when disturbed absorption of CSF into the venous system of the brain.
- Gipersecretornye form when there is excessive formation of CSF, which just does not have time to fully get into the venous system. Is this option in papilloma of the choroid plexus.
Depending on the speed of progression of the disease there are:
- The acute form, when the symptoms increase and reach of decompensation within 3 days from the moment of the beginning of the pathological process. In such cases, usually requires urgent surgical treatment, which the patient may die within 24 to 48 hours.
- Subacute form when decompensation occurs within months.
- Chronic form, when hydrocephalus increases gradually and reaches its maximum for 1 – 6 months.
Depending on the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid hydrocephalus is:
- hypertensive when the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid is increased;
- normotensive – figures in liquor pressure in the normal range;
- hypotensive, when there is a low pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid.
Depending on the severity of symptoms of hydrocephalus are:
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- Compensated, when on the background of existing hydrocephalus almost any symptoms or complaints from the patient are observed. The body compensates for the pathological changes in the brain, that is adapt to them.
- Decompensated form, when even moderate hydrocephalus manifested severe symptoms and life-threatening patient.
Any of the forms of hydrocephalus, even one that is not manifested by complaints requires a serious complex treatment, sometimes surgical. Therefore, prevention needs to annually visit doctor to undergo diagnostic tests.