Good cholesterol and bad cholesterol: normal
There are several types of cholesterol in the blood. Increase the concentration of bad cholesterol is a major cause of atherosclerosis with subsequent complications in the form of acute or chronic diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Therefore, all therapeutic and preventive measures aimed at normalization of the level of all types of cholesterol.
What cholesterol is, its role in the body
Cholesterol is an important organic compound, which belongs to the class of lipophilic fats. It is part of cell membranes, stabilizes them, is a precursor of certain hormones involved in metabolism of vitamin D and the synthesis of bile acids. Therefore, the reduction of cholesterol levels below normal is a cause of a violation of the functional activity of many organs and body systems.
What types of cholesterol are?
Cholesterol partially enters the body from food and is synthesized in the liver cells. As cholesterol is insoluble compound in the blood it is associated with the protein as (lipoprotein). Also they are composed of phospholipids and triglycerides (fats). Depending on the ratio of these compounds, there are several types of lipoproteins:
- The very low density lipoproteins contain a large amount of triglycerides and cholesterol, their number increases after eating fatty foods.
- The low-density lipoprotein – fraction with a high content of cholesterol, both exogenous and endogenous.
- High-density lipoproteins – they contain minimal amount of cholesterol and triglycerides with a high content of phospholipids.
Lipoproteins with low density represent the bad cholesterol, increasing their levels is the cause of a number of diseases vessels and the heart. Good cholesterol, on the contrary, contributes to the prevention of pathological processes in the arterial vessels of the body. The normal total cholesterol is not an indicator of the lack of possible development of atherosclerosis, so be sure to biochemical blood analysis included the determination of all classes of lipoproteins.
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What complications results in increased «bad» cholesterol?
A prolonged and significant increase in the level of cholesterol is the cause of the development of various vascular diseases. Pathogenesis is the deposition of cholesterol in the inner layer of the artery wall (the endothelium) that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, covered with endothelial cells. The plaque decreases the lumen of the artery, causing a deterioration of blood supply to an organ or tissue which they feed.
In the case of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of the heart and brain developing heart disease and cerebral atherosclerosis caused by eating disorders of these organs. Localization of plaques in the arteries of the kidneys leading to hypertension in which the hypertension is the result of insufficient blood supply to the tissues of the kidneys and to activate the synthesis of angiotensin, causing spasm of blood vessels.
When exposed to precipitating factors (znachitelnoe increase in plaque size, arterial hypertension) endothelial tyre atherosclerotic plaque is damaged, blood comes in contact directly with cholesterol and the formation of a blood clot. He breaks off and migrates to the blood vessels (thromboembolism), clog the arteries of smaller diameter with an abrupt cessation of blood flow in tissues. This complication of atherosclerosis is the basis of cardiovascular catastrophes, which include:
- Myocardial infarction – death of area of heart muscle due to abrupt cessation of blood circulation. The severity of this condition depends on the caliber of the occluded artery.
- Ischemic stroke develops as a result of blockage by a blood clot of one of the arteries of the brain.
- Infarction kidney – develops the death phase of renal tissue.
- Infarction of the intestine – the result of blockage of one of the mesenteric arteries.
When bad cholesterol is the most common complications are myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. This is a severe pathological condition in which full rehabilitation of the sick person is impossible, therefore, modern medicine pays special attention to their prevention.
How to reduce bad cholesterol?
To lower the level of bad cholesterol is possible with simple recommendations is to modify lifestyle. These include:
- Moderating the consumption of animal products containing fats and sweets (carbohydrates contribute indirectly to the increase in the concentration of lipoproteins with low density).
- Increase physical activity – morning exercise and Jogging reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by 30%.
- Refusal systematic of alcohol intake and Smoking, which increase the concentration of cholesterol and damage the vascular endothelium, contributing to the deposition in them of cholesterol.
The implementation of these recommendations in most cases, is the basis for successful prevention of vascular diseases in the future, even in the case of hereditary predisposition to high concentrations of bad cholesterol in the blood.
How to increase the concentration of high density lipoprotein?
In order to increase the good cholesterol, be sure to include in the diet foods that contain unsaturated fatty acids. These include various nuts (walnuts, macadamia nuts, hazelnuts, pistachios) and linseed oil. Also useful green tea contains polyphenols that inhibit the absorption of fats and cholesterol in the intestine.
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Diet, enough physical activity and avoiding harmful habits are the Foundation of a healthy lifestyle, allowing you to minimize the likelihood of increasing bad cholesterol.