Heart arrhythmia: what is it?
A heart arrhythmia is a common pathology. It may be a complication of myocardial infarction and myocarditis, but can also be independent disease. In the structure of pathology of the cardiovascular system (CVS) share of arrhythmias reaches 15%. At the same time 1/3 of cardiac patients have complication in form of arrhythmia.
An arrhythmia. What is it?
Heart is under the influence of electric pulses. The signal originates in the main pacemaker (the sinus node). Then it is passed through a conducting system inside the heart. Thus, he moves from the Atria to the ventricles, providing a consistent contraction. In this case, is the necessary sequence of contraction of cardiomyocytes. Initially, the blood is pushed from the Atria into the ventricles, and from them into the circulation (small – light and large – to the tissues). Such pulses occur rhythmically. Their generation occurs automatically. This ensures a regular frequency, sequence and rhythm of heartbeats. If you violate these conditions there is an arrhythmia.
The types of arrhythmias in violation of the rate
Normal pulse rate in adults of average fitness is an interval from 60 to 100 oscillations per minute. If the age of a person less than 10 years, this figure will be more. For well trained athletes require less of the heart’s contractions, to deliver the necessary alone the amount of blood to the organs. Their norm is an interval of from 40 to 60 pulse vibrations per minute.
If heart rate (heart rate) is less than the lower limit of normal, age-appropriate and the degree of fitness, such a violation is called bradycardia or bradyarrythmia. For adults, the figure starts from 59 strokes or less. With frequent contractions of the heart opposite rhythm. It is called tachycardia or tachyarrhythmia. For adults of average fitness this diagnosis is available after reaching level 101 of the pulse oscillations per minute at rest.
What are the mechanisms of arrhythmias are there?
Variability can occur in the presence of internal or external causes. Heart diseases they are organic. In the pathology of other organs, e.g. thyroid, arrhythmia will be functional. Mechanisms of development of various forms of disorders of a rhythm can coincide and to occur:
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- At infringement of function of automatism of the primary pacemaker. In this case, the nerve impulse occurs at the right place (the sinus node), but the pace or sequence in the generation of pulses is disturbed.
- The appearance of the myocardium other active hearth generating pulses. This center operates in isolation from the sinus node, also producing the pulses. In this scenario, you experience arrhythmia ectopic type.
- If you change the delivery of the signal from the sinus node to other parts of the heart. This is called the pathology of conductivity. In this case, the signal does not pass to other parts of the conduction system.
- When a malfunction of the sinus node.
Heart rhythm disturbances can be isolated and appear due to the action of a single mechanism of development of pathology. Meet heart rhythm disorder that is a result of a combination of several reasons. From arrhythmia will depend on the symptoms and recommendations for treatment.
What arrhythmias occur in violation of automatism?
Heart rhythm with sinus arrhythmia can be acceleration, deceleration and change of intervals between occurrences of pulses. The occurrence of sinus tachycardia due to the influence of pacemaker stimulating substances or a change in the balance of regulation of the nervous system. Pathology can appear during physical stress and eating. The increased body temperature also increases heart rate. It is considered that the addition of 1 º C to the initial temperature leads to an increase in heart rate by 8 – 10 strokes.
If the pulse increase is disproportionate – this means that the cause of its increase is not only hyperthermia. For sinus tachycardia can cause the presence of myocarditis, heart defects, heart attacks, etc. In case of arrhythmia with increasing heart rate there is a heartbeat. This increases the heart rate. On ECG, significant changes except for heart rate is not detected.
The appearance of sinus bradycardia tells about the decline in the ability to excitability of primary pacemaker. It works more on the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic influence is reduced. This phenomenon is observed in case of long exposure to cold, medications that lower heart rate, toxins and products of metabolism. Bradycardia may be a consequence of the sclerotic process in the heart muscle and weakening of the function of the sinus node. It can be a consequence of the development of diseases:
- endocrine (myxedema);
- nervous system (cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, stroke);
- the digestive system (jaundice);
- infectious diseases (typhoid fever).
Bradycardia is manifested by weakness, dizziness and loss of consciousness. Sinus arrhythmia may occur with irregularity of occurrence of the pulses. Then it will be irregular. It occurs under the influence of fluctuations of the activity of the vagus nerve. This is due to the increased heart rate on inspiration and decreasing on exhalation. This respiratory arrhythmia is more common in children and adolescents and did not cause concern, as a variant of normal development. Elderly patients with normal breathing it is a sign of the pathological process.
Arrhythmia ectopic localization
Atypical localized excitation conduction system are called ectopic or heterotropia. They produce impetus together with the sinus node. Under the influence of such a signal reduces the area of the myocardium after a normal, ordinary reduction. It’s called the beat. This type of arrhythmia is observed in violation of the pulse and its return in the presence of obstacles on the path. Depending on the localization of the source of additional pulses, arrhythmia can be divided into supraventricular (atrial and atrioventricular) and ventricular (right ventricular and left ventricular).
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When ectopic arrhythmias are observed reducing attacks in a particular rhythm and sudden contractions. On ECG normal sinus rhythm will be interrupted by pulses from another source. Premature beats can occur in healthy people. It is triggered by Smoking, drinking coffee and strong tea. Extrasystoles can occur in diseases of the CVS (myocardial dystrophy) or other organs (thyrotoxicosis). While there may be a sense of disruption in the heart, the cessation of the heartbeat – «fading», alternating powerful, resonant blow. If the ectopic site is very active and often stimulates contractions, this type of rhythm disturbance called paroxysmal will.
Arrhythmia during the conduction disturbance
During the formation of the impulse in the sinus node may encounter an obstacle in its passage. This unit may form on any part. Depending on the level of obstruction such arrhythmias can be divided into:
- sinoatrial blockade is at the level of the sinus node;
- vnutriepreserdna – in this type of arrhythmia is a breach of the passage of impulses at the level of the myocardium of the Atria;
- atrioventricular (atrioventricular) – it occurs when the blockade of the signal from the Atria to the ventricles and can be caused by taking medicines from the group of β-blockers;
- intraventricular in this embodiment, arrhythmia obstacle of the pulse is observed at the level of bundle branch block.
The causes of blockade of nervous impulse may be inflammatory, sclerotic, degenerative phenomena in the myocardium. Conduction system is disrupted scar tissue, toxins, granulomas, etc. This type of arrhythmia is often a result of circulatory disorders of the myocardium. Blockade can be persistent (permanent) and transient (temporary). Constant blockade is a manifestation of the anatomical disorders in the myocardium. Transient arrhythmia is the consequence of temporary functional effects on the heart.
Symptoms of arrhythmia by conduction disturbance can vary significantly. The clinical picture is significantly influenced by the level of damage, its cause, the duration of the existence of the blockade, the ongoing therapy and the patient’s condition. An arrhythmia may be detected during preventive examination or show signs of circulatory disorders vital organs (heart, brain).
How to treat arrhythmia?
What to do when an arrhythmia and what medications to drink – can be found only by a doctor after performing a comprehensive diagnostic study.