Heart defect in children: symptoms, how many with him?
With congenital heart defects according to various sources, the light appears about 1% of infants to identify the factors behind the development of such pathologies of the fetus in utero, doctors can only in 10% of cases. Due to early diagnosis and modern methods of surgical treatment in the majority of these infants could not only overcome death, but to live, keeping up with their peers.
Heart disease: what is it?
Heart disease is the changes of anatomical structures of the heart (chambers, valves, walls) and blood vessels departing from it, resulting in violation of hemodynamics. All heart diseases are divided into two groups: congenital and acquired. In children reveals, as a rule, congenital heart disease (CHD). They are of two types:
- «Blue», in which venous blood into the arteries, so the skin becomes bluish tint. This group of VPS is the most dangerous, as organs and tissues of the child due to the mixing of arterial and saturated with carbon dioxide the venous blood loses oxygen. The most common «blue» UPU – atresia of the pulmonary artery, nibble, Halo, transposition of the great vessels.
- «White», characterized by a discharge of blood in the right chambers of the heart and pallor of the skin. Defects of this type are tolerated more easily by patients, but over time they lead to the development of heart failure and the appearance of lung problems. Examples are atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, etc.
Congenital heart disease in children develops in the womb, and this happens when the heart is formed – during the first 2 months of pregnancy. If during this period the female body is the negative factors affecting the risk of CHD in a child is greatly increased. The factors leading to the development of heart disease in the fetus include:
- Alcohol, nicotine, drugs.
- Some medicines (including sulfonamides, aspirin, antibiotics).
- The rubella virus.
- The unfavourable environment.
In addition, a major role in the formation of heart defects genetics plays. Mutation of certain gene causes impaired protein synthesis, which form the septum of the heart. Genetic mutations can be inherited and can occur due to consumption a woman, drugs, alcohol, effects of radiation, etc.
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How to identify heart disease?
To diagnose heart disease experienced doctor of ultrasonic diagnostics can still in utero. Therefore, gynecologists strongly recommend that all expectant mothers undergo routine ultrasound. Prenatal detection of serious CHD in the fetus gives the woman the right to choose to bear or not to bear a seriously ill child. If a woman wants to carry the pregnancy to end, to organize the birth so that the newborn was immediately given the necessary medical assistance (as a rule, resuscitation) and promptly had surgery.
Often it happens that the fetal heart defects are not detected, the child is born, at first glance, perfectly healthy, but problems arise later. Therefore, in order not to miss CHD, prevent the progression of disease and development of complications, every newborn is examined carefully in the hospital. The first thing that indicates a possible defect is the noise defined when listening to the heart. If such is detected, the child was immediately sent to a specialist clinic for further investigation (conduct Echocardiography, ECG and other studies).
However, to detect newborn heart defect in the first days of life is not always possible (noise may simply not be auscultated), so parents, it is important to know what symptoms indicate that a child’s heart something is not right, in time to see a doctor. Such signs include the following:
- Pallor or cyanosis of the skin (especially around lips, hands, heels).
- Bad weight gain.
- Sluggish sucking, frequent respites during feeding.
- Rapid heartbeat (normal in newborns – 150 – 160 odpraw per minute).
In some CHD symptoms of pathology appear not in the first year of life and later. In such cases to suspect the presence of pathology of the heart by the following characteristics:
- Lagging behind peers in physical development.
- Shortness of breath during exercise.
- Complaints of the child to headaches, dizziness.
- Periodic fainting.
- Frequent colds, complicated by lingering bronchitis and pneumonia.
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In addition, parents must regularly drive the child to the pediatrician or family doctor (in the first year of life – every month, later every year), because only the doctor may hear a heart murmur and notice what you don’t pay attention to mom and dad.
If in a family someone has a VPS or pregnancy proceeded against the background of aggravating factors (endocrine and autoimmune diseases in women, severe toxemia, threatened abortion, infectious diseases, medication, Smoking and alcohol abuse, etc.), the child is desirable to examine the heart with Echocardiography, even in the absence of any pathological symptoms.
Treatment and prognosis
Approach to the treatment of CHD. One patients the operation is performed immediately after birth, others after six months, and third doctors treated conservatively without any surgical interventions. To congenital malformations, which are well tolerated by patients and does not always require surgical correction (because it often spontaneously closes), include the following:
- Small defects in the walls between the ventricles and the Atria.
- Patent ductus arteriosus.
- Minor deformation of the heart valves.
The prognosis of these VPS is usually favorable, even if surgical treatment is required.
Much worse is the situation with most «blue» vices. These defects were more complex and more dangerous. For the most severe CHD include:
- Transposition (change of persons) in the aorta and pulmonary artery.
- The discharge and of the aorta, and the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle.
- Tetrad, Halo (includes 4 anomalies of the heart and great vessels).
- Gross defects of the valves.
- Hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the heart. Especially dangerous defect is the underdevelopment of the left. To the question about how many live with him, can be answered with statistical data – in this disease there is almost 100% mortality.
- Atresia (atresia) pulmonary artery.
Gross UPU rapidly growing heart failure, the children immediately after birth, pass into a very serious condition that requires immediate surgical intervention. The success of this treatment depends on how rapidly a newborn is delivered in a specialized cardiac clinic and how the selected therapeutic strategy. The observance of these two conditions is possible only in one case – if the defect is detected before birth. Prenatal diagnosis of CHD allows doctors of all parts (and obstetricians-gynecologists, and surgeons) to prepare for the upcoming birth and to plan surgical intervention in the newborn hearts.