Heart disease: what is it, symptoms
Heart defects are structural abnormalities of the heart or departing from it of the blood vessels, which affect the intracardiac and systemic blood flow. People can be born with a certain defect, or it can develop later, after illness.
How does a healthy heart?
To understand how a defect affects the heart and circulation, you need to understand how it functions in a healthy organism.
Heart, lungs and blood vessels make up the circulatory system. The heart is the Central pump, pumping the blood. It consists of 4 chambers – the left atrium (La) and left ventricle (LV), right atrium (PA) and right ventricle (RV). Also the heart has 4 valves that ensure blood flow in one direction.
LP receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, then passes it through the mitral valve (MC) in the left ventricle, which pumps this oxygenated blood through the aortic valve (AK) in the aorta and its branches throughout the body. So is the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all tissues and organs.
After the oxygen goes into tissue, deoxyguanosine blood through the veins returns to the PP, which through the tricuspid valve (TC) is the pancreas. The right ventricle pumps venous blood through the pulmonary valve (VALVE) to the lungs where it is enriched with oxygen from the air inhaled by man. Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters again in the PL. This is the normal path of circulation in the body. However, disruption of the structure of the heart can affect its correct functioning.
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Features of circulation during fetal development
Child during fetal development is not breathing, it gets oxygen directly from the mother’s bloodstream. Therefore, it is not necessary that the blood passed through the lungs. Because of this, in the circulatory system there are two connections that allow blood to go directly from the right heart into the left and into the systemic circulation – the foramen ovale (between PL and PP) and the ductus arteriosus (between the pulmonary artery and aorta). Normal after the birth of these compounds are overgrown.
What is this congenital?
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are abnormalities in the structure of the heart that are present in the child from birth. They appear due to incomplete or abnormal development of the fetal heart in early pregnancy. The exact cause of CHD is unknown, some are associated with genetic disorders such as down syndrome. Increase their risk can:
- Problems with the genes or chromosomes of the child – for example, down syndrome.
- The intake of certain drugs or excessive alcohol during pregnancy.
- A viral infection of mother in first trimester – for example, rubella.
Most VPS are structural abnormalities, such as pathological holes and problems with the valves. For example:
- Defects of the heart valves. The valves may be narrowed (stenosis), fully closed, or to pass blood in the opposite direction (failure).
- Problems with the heart walls. The presence of holes or abnormal passageways between the left and right side of the heart leads to mixing of venous and arterial blood.
- Problems with the myocardium, which can lead to the development of heart failure.
- Improper connection of the heart and large blood vessels between them.
The symptoms of CHD
As congenital anomalies disrupt the heart’s ability to pump blood and deliver oxygen throughout the body, they often lead to the development of the following characteristics:
- Bluish tint (cyanosis) of the lips, tongue, nail the lies.
- The increase in breathing rate or shortness of breath.
- Poor appetite or difficulty feeding.
- Color changes of the skin during feeding.
- Poor weight gain or decrease.
- Sweating, especially during feeding.
If the child has any of these signs, you should immediately consult a doctor.
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The prognosis of CHD
Parents often wonder about how dangerous it is – congenital anomalies of the heart. Currently, the prognosis for children with this disease much better than in the past. Thanks to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of most of them live a long, active and fulfilling life.
What it is – an acquired heart defects?
Acquired defect is a structural abnormalities in the heart that develop during life due to certain diseases. Most often, these violations are striking heart valves and have a rheumatic origin. The reasons for the development of acquired heart diseases:
- The degenerative process affecting the valves of the heart.
- Infectious endocarditis.
- Coronary heart disease.
Most often develop isolated heart defects – mitral stenosis, aortic stenosis, mitral insufficiency, aortic insufficiency, tricuspid valve stenosis, insufficiency of the tricuspid valve. Sometimes a person may be a combined defect – for example, stenosis and insufficiency of the aortic valve.
The clinical picture of acquired heart diseases
Symptoms of acquired heart defects develop gradually. They usually manifest with signs of heart failure:
- Shortness of breath.
- Edema in the lower extremities and abdomen.
All these symptoms are a result of the accumulation of excess fluid in the body.
Management of acquired heart diseases
In the initial stages of development of the defects it is possible to conduct conservative therapy. Selection of drugs is based on the type of defect, stage of disease and severity of heart failure. With the progression of symptoms, surgical treatment, plastic, or prosthetic struck valve. Under certain defects, such as aortic stenosis or insufficiency – this can be done using minimally invasive techniques. But in most cases is carried out open heart surgery with artificial circulation.