Heart failure: what is it, symptoms

The human body for normal functioning should always be ensured by the blood. Blood dissolved oxygen to tissues and organs, it dissolved and the nutrients – proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. A leading authority, which affects the provision of blood – the heart. It is the work of the heart maintains life in the human body.

For a number of reasons for heart is not always able to perform its functions in full. The work of the heart is insufficient, which affects the deterioration of all systems and organs. This condition is called heart failure. Not many people know what it is until you notice the classic symptoms of the disease.

Form of pathology

There are several forms of heart failure that have different effects on the human health. Consider two basic forms:

  • Acute heart failure – a condition exacerbated rapidly, in just a few hours. The pathology is characterized by lung edema, cardiogenic shock and cardiac asthma. The reason lies in the pathology of pathology of the mitral or aortic valve, acute myocardial infarction, rupture of the walls of the left ventricle.
  • The chronic form of heart failure can last in its development from several weeks to several years. To provoke chronic insufficiency can heart defects, anemia, respiratory disease, resistant hypertension. Chronic failure occurs more often than acute. In some cases, the patient does not feel the signs of incipient pathological process, but the disease is already progressing.
  • When considering forms of the disease need to separately allocate decompensated heart failure. This is the last, terminal stage of disease that may start to occur pathological functional changes in the heart. These damage the heart is not able to perform their functions even in a resting state, not to mention the load on it. Decompensated form of failure requires immediate treatment for medical help. Only a medical professional knows what to do in such a case, and how fast to normalize heart function.

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    Causes and factors of development of heart failure

    Heart failure occurs when damage to the body or with the inability to pump the necessary blood volume. Signs that may indicate heart failure:

    • high blood pressure;
    • heart disease (congenital or acquired);
    • coronary artery disease.

    As a rule, men the direct cause of the disease is ischemia of the organ, and women suffer heart failure due to high pressure. Causes of decompensated failure:

  • a severe form of existing cardiac disease;
  • hypertensive crisis;
  • overload of the heart;
  • a significant volume of surgical intervention;
  • taking certain medicines;
  • damage to the heart muscle infection, the development of the inflammatory process.
  • However, not only the immediate causes of heart failure can be culprits of disease. There are a number of factors that contribute to the emergence of the disease. Such factors include:

  • diabetes mellitus;
  • abnormal heart rhythm;
  • inflammation of the myocardium;
  • cardiomyopathy;
  • effects on the body Smoking and alcohol.
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    The above-described factors can be the culprits of not only heart failure, but cardiac asthma. This condition is characterized by attacks of breathlessness and cessation of oxygen to the heart, which in turn provokes arrhythmia by joining the work of the compensatory capacity of the organism. Not always, attacks of cardiac asthma end happily, so the causes of both pathologies should be observed at the time, and the disease is diagnosed.

    Symptoms of the disease

    Symptoms of heart failure depend on which chamber of the heart has abnormalities. If an abnormal condition has affected the left ventricle, then patients will feel shortness of breath, wheezing in the chest, they will have hemoptysis, possible cyanosis of the fingers. If pathology is noted in the right ventricle, then the blood stasis is noted in the systemic circulation. Patients suffer swelling of the limbs, pain in region of liver, indicating that the stagnation of venous blood in the vessels of the body. Another characteristic symptom is fatigue. In decompensated form of heart failure symptoms worse.

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    Diagnosis

    In order to accurately diagnose and rapidly initiate treatment, the patient may need to do some tests and go through a few studies. Usually doctors refer the patient for a blood test, do a echocardiogram, x-ray study and electrocardiogram. After the diagnosis is made, treatment begins the patient.

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    The treatment of the disease

    The basis of treatment of disease is a conservative therapy medication different spectrum. To prevent excessive heart muscle, the patient is assigned to beta-blockers – special funds, leading to normal pressure and reducing the heart rate. If the patient has the acute form of disease, then it do intravenous infusion of glycosides, because the delay is not here. Depending on the further development of the pathology can be assigned to glycosides with prolonged action.

    An essential drugs in the treatment of heart failure – diuretics. They facilitate the work of the body, freeing the body of excess fluid.
    If conservative treatment fails, may need surgical intervention and the installation of a special device – a pacemaker. In the same way you can solve the problems with congestive heart failure, failure of the valves. In the future, after treatment of the disease, patients should monitor their body and to comply with all recommendations that will reduce the load on the heart. Usually doctors recommend for heart failure such rules:

  • to achieve a normal weight, if such a problem exists;
  • do not use salt in excessive quantities;
  • regularly to give the body physical activity in the dose recommended by your doctor;
  • stop Smoking and drinking alcohol.