Heart murmur in a child: causes
While listening to the hearts of the child the doctor can often detect the noise. They may have a physiological origin, is associated with features of maturation of the cardiovascular system, as well as pathological nature, which is a consequence of the disease. To diagnose is necessarily performed for more objective study.
Why do I get heart murmur?
The heart of man is in a state of constant functional activity. Its main task is to provide a pumping function, by which the flow of blood in the vessels of the body. It consists of the muscles (reduction ensures the expulsion of blood), cavities (of which the blood moves in the vessels) and valve apparatus (prevents backward flow or regurgitation of blood).
To assess the functional state of the doctor must conducting auscultation (listening with a stethoscope), giving the opportunity for sound changes suggest possible violations. Normal auscultation and listened to the tones that represent the sound of slamming shutters of valves. Additional sounds during operation often appear as a result of changes in blood flow through the valves (the acceleration of blood flow through the narrowed valve regurgitation back during relaxation of the heart muscle). Such a mechanism of formation of the noise can have physiological and pathological origin.
Causes of in children
Heart murmur in a child may appear due to different reasons depending on age. Functional noise is normal and a result of the realization of different reasons related to the peculiarities of maturation of the cardiovascular system, which include:
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- Faster growth of the ventricles relative to the Atria.
- Features of the ripening of major venous vessels, which are causing «venous murmur».
- The sound of acceleration of blood flow in the vessels of the lungs, which is listened to after exercise in children older.
- The vibration of the myocardium (heart muscle) during systole (contraction of myocardium) – auscultated under one year, due to the small thickness of the chest wall, especially in thin children.
- The increased influence of the sympathetic part of the nervous system on the cardiovascular system, which is characterized by the increase in the intensity of blood flow with noise, often occurs in children adolescence.
Physiological changes the sound of the blood flow are usually alone and do not require treatment. Pathological noise associated with the development of organic or functional changes. They have certain characteristics depending on the age of the child.
Why do I get noises in an infant?
The main cause of noise from a child under the age of six months is their physiological origin, is associated with changes in functional activity of the cardiovascular system after birth and the inclusion of the pulmonary circulation, in particular the fusion of the oval window, through which in utero of the blood discharged from the right to the left atrium. Also in this age, there is a fusion of arterial and venous duct, which may also be accompanied by the appearance of additional sounds during auscultation. Pathological reasons include:
- Nezareatmene oval window, arterial or venous duct, which normally should be closed at the age of 1 year.
- Ventricular septal defect – a malformation in which there is a hole between the right and left ventricle.
- Any congenital malformations, accompanied by a narrowing (stenosis) or insufficiency of the valves.
The noise development of the child in a year can often be not related to organic changes. So the increase in body temperature with infectious intoxication or after exercise may be accompanied by noise.
Why there can be noises from a baby 2 years?
Most often the child 2 years after birth maturation of the cardiovascular system is accompanied by an increase in blood pressure, which is gradually approaching the figure of an adult. This leads to an increase in the intensity of blood flow in the cavities of the heart. By this age, all ducts, which functioned during fetal development, must be sarasini, so should not be a reason for more sounds. Most often their appearance is the result of the manifestation of one of the congenital (insufficiency or stenosis of the mitral, tricuspid valve).
Noise from children 3 years
At the age of three physiological noise can be associated with a more rapid increase in size of the ventricles relative to the Atria, which leads to a change in the intensity of blood flow. Also during this period of a child’s life is the establishment of the autonomic nervous system with increased functional activity of its sympathetic part, affect heart rate (physiological tachycardia), as well as the intensity of the current of blood in heart cavities and large vessels.
Pathological origin may be associated with organic pathology (acquired or congenital malformations, infectious lesion of the heart muscle and the inner layer of the wall, changes in metabolism, caused by the toxic effects in severe certain diseases, in particular angina and pneumonia).
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For a more reliable determination of the reasons the doctor is required to appoint an additional study, which includes ECG, electrocardiography and x-ray imaging techniques. Only on the basis of the results of additional research it is concluded that physiological or pathological situations, and if necessary, assigns appropriate treatment.