Hematocrit increased: what does it mean, causes
Figure blood test «hematocrit» incomprehensible to most people. What is hematocrit and what is its norm? Do I have the definition? Why is an increase in hematocrit, and dangerous than such a change of blood? These questions should know the answer to every person. This is to avoid conditions that threaten the development of serious diseases and the risk of death.
Hematocrit: what does it mean?
The hematocrit (Ht), otherwise known hematocrite number — an indicator of blood that indicates in percent or litre/liter (l/l) the ratio of the volume of red blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets) to total blood volume (shaped cells and plasma). Often, the indicator is calculated taking into account only the red blood cells. The red cells are the largest blood cells, they account for 99% of the total volume of formed elements. The hematocrit indicates the ability of blood to transport oxygen and characterizes its viscosity.
The rate of hematocrit in the blood of adults
The change in the number of gematokritnogo depends on the sex and age of the person. For adults, the following rules Ht (%):
- women 18 – 45 years 35 – 45;
- women from 45 years old — 35 – 47;
- men 18 – 45 years — 39 – 49;
- men from 45 years to 40 – 50.
A large amount of blood cells (hematocrit above normal) provokes blood clots and associated with the pathology of the disease.
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Physiological causes increase in hematocrit
Not always too high hematocrit indicates any organic pathology. The increase in the number of gematokritnogo is often due to compensatory reaction of the organism to maintain homeostasis. Inflated the hematocrit is recorded under the following circumstances:
The main role of erythrocytes is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the organs and carbon dioxide. A pronounced oxygen deficiency in heavy smokers and an excess of carbon dioxide leads to compensatory increase in red blood cells and thereby increasing hematocrit.
- Being in the mountains.
Stay in the highlands for the past 2 – 3 days can cause increased level of hematocrit. Thin mountain air will cause hypoxia of the body and oxygen starvation of the tissues, which leads to the emission of deposited in liver and spleen of red blood cells and the synthesis of active blood-forming organs. Dual compensation entails a sharp increase in the number of gematokritnogo.
- Overheating of the body.
Lengthy sun exposure may cause a significant loss of fluid. The body in the first place «gives» fluid out of the blood decreases the volume of plasma and the blood thickens due to the increase of the relative volume of corpuscles. The same changes are observed in people who frequently (several times a week) visiting the sauna and steam rooms.
- Basic dehydration.
To dehydration, often severe enough to lead little fluid intake and loss with frequent consumption of laxatives/diuretics, a long period of high temperatures accompanied by profuse sweating. And, again, suffers from the circulatory system: the volume of the liquid portion of blood decreases and the volume of red blood cells increases.
- Chronic stress.
Constant psychological stress, which is not enclosed by any one person because of the accelerated pace of life, and many distractions, leads to failures of various kinds. However, the first stress-responsive blood increases hematocrit.
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Diseases in which elevated hematocrit
Iron deficiency and reduced hemoglobin starts the process of hypoxia due to insufficient oxygen transport to tissues.
- Pathology of the respiratory system.
Bronchial asthma, pneumonia, chronic obstruction and pulmonary embolism in tuberculosis, emphysema and other serious lung diseases are often the reason for the increase in the number of gematokritnogo.
- Intestinal infection.
Diarrhea and repeated vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration. Elevated hematocrit also fixed by peritonitis and internal bleeding.
Hematocrite index increases in the presence of burns: superficial – more than 15% of the area of the skin, deep – more than 10% of destruction of the body.
- Heart disease.
Diseases accompanied by chronic heart failure, provoke fluid accumulation in tissues (edema of the extremities, ascites) due to its removal from the vasculature.
- Serious pathology of the liver.
Cirrhosis and cancer of the liver leads to the accumulation of several liters of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
- The use of corticosteroids.
Long-term use of corticosteroids causes deviations of blood parameters, including changes in the hematocrit increase.
High glucose levels primarily affected the blood vessels. The resulting chronic oxygen starvation of tissues triggers compensatory reactions in the body, and the blood test shows a high hematocrit.
- Oncology blood.
Leukemia, in which a tenfold increase in the number of white blood cells, and the cells themselves acquire huge size, is characterized by increased hematocrit on the background of significant leukocytosis. The change in the number of gematokritnogo and is found in eritremii.
- Severe kidney damage.
Genetically determined progressive polycystic disease and hydronephrosis lead to changes in the biochemical composition of the blood and increased hematocrit.
- Cancer of the kidneys.
Increased synthesis of erythropoietin, which is characteristic for the neoplastic process in the kidneys, and causes blood clots.
The hematocrit of the child
For children, depending on age, the following rules hematocrit (%):
- up to 2 weeks — 33 – 65%;
- up to 1 year — 33 – 44;
- to 5 years — 32 – 41;
- to 11 — 33 – 41;
- to 17 years 34 – 44 for girls and 35 – 45 for boys.
While maintaining the highest indicator of the number of gematokritnogo the baby after 1 year can be suspected of congenital renal or cardiac pathology.
The hematocrit in pregnancy
In pregnant women, normally bears a child, usually fixed low level Ht — 31 – 35%, and at 32 – 34 weeks of gestation recorded the lowest level — 32 – 34%. It will increase more than 36% during pregnancy due to:
- with iron supplementation (the rate increased minimally);
- eating large amounts of salt (some pregnant women addicted to herring) that provoke fluid retention in the tissues, and substantial edema is always accompanied by high Ht;
- frequent vomiting in severe toxicosis, an elevated hematocrit of 40% indicates a marked dehydration and a threat to the fetus;
- histosol — late toxicosis developing during the 2nd – 3rd trimester of pregnancy, due to disruption of the vascular system.
In most cases, a high level of hematocrit is only indicative of the possible disease. Correct diagnosis of the pathology is carried out by combined evaluation of the number of gematokritnogo and other blood parameters, as well as conducting additional research.