High blood pressure: what to do?
Almost 30% of the population to register high pressure reaches 140/90 mm Hg. St and above. In this disease increases the force with which blood presses against the blood vessels that eventually damage their walls and contributes to the deposition of plaques of cholesterol and calcium. Hypertension adversely affects the heart, kidneys and brain, can cause strokes, heart attacks of a myocardium or cause other severe complications. This article explains why increasing blood pressure, how it manifests itself and how it is treated.
The etiology of hypertension
Normal pressure is 120/80 mm Hg. article For some people blood pressure is 150/100 and is considered normal. Can occur low blood pressure that does not cause any violations in the body or changes in overall health. Thus, the hypotensive register the AP in the range of 100/60. However, in most cases, the deviation of the pressure level from the standard indicators are regarded as pathology.
HELL meets the contractions of the myocardium. The upper figure (systolic pressure) is responsible for systole, while the lower figure (diastolic pressure) – during diastole, there is relaxation of cardiac muscle. It is believed that the systolic (top) pressure of the heart, because it occurs when the myocardium contraction. In addition, in its creation of a role played by the aorta. The lower pressure is called vascular, because in it the blood moves passively during diastole the vessels. More life-threatening and concerning complications is the rise in the top figure, since the lower the pressure, the level of which significantly exceeds the norm, the disruption of the body is still not so pronounced.
In some cases, blood pressure increases?
The basis of hypertension is the increase in cardiac output and increase vascular tone. In the etiology of hypertension klassificeret into two types:
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- essential hypertension is hypertension, which is characterized by high blood pressure in the absence of lesions of other organs (e.g., heart, kidney, endocrine glands, etc.);
- secondary or symptomatic hypertension is the pathology that develops in the presence of other comorbidities. Usually, high blood pressure occurs when kidney conditions (e.g., glomerulo — or pyelonephritis) in lesions of the aorta or the heart valves (hemodynamic hypertension), chronic lung disease. Also hypertension is of Central origin in traumatic injuries of the brain or endocrine etiology in disorders of the thyroid gland or adrenal glands.
Among other factors that can cause elevated blood pressure, should call breathing problems at night (sleep apnea), various neuroses, overdose separate medications, excessive coffee consumption, or by other means which stimulate the heart.
The high pressure can also be Smoking, drinking alcohol, excessive exercise, poor diet with high salt content, lack of sleep, physical inactivity, and overweight. Among the risk factors hypertension should specify hereditary predisposition, male sex, age over 35 years, pregnancy, presence of atherosclerosis or diabetes and diseases of the hypothalamus. Sometimes, meteo sensitive people is increasing pressure when the weather changes dramatically.
In adolescence, fluctuations AD associated with puberty and significant hormonal changes in the body. In addition, hypertension in adolescents is a consequence dystonia, which occurs due to age-related changes in the autonomic NS.
In some cases, simultaneously, there is hypertension and high pulse. This may indicate the presence of congenital heart disease, thyroid lesions, cancer processes, anemia or pathology of the respiratory system. If there was high blood pressure and low heart rate is evidence of cardiac ischemia, infarction, inflammatory processes in the heart, various arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy, atherosclerotic damage of the coronary vessels.
The main manifestations of excessive pressure:
- headaches and pressure on eyes (patients difficult to look around, they also complain that they feel dizzy);
- noise in the ears and blurred vision
- General weakness,
- redness of the face;
- can bleeding from the nose.
- memory impairment and loss of sleep;
- the appearance of edema;
If you are constantly logged hypertension, this eventually leads to damage to the retinal vessels and impaired vision as a result. When damage to the blood vessels of the brain develop paralysis, decreased sensitivity of the limbs, possible thrombosis and hemorrhage. In hypertension possible crises – States, which arise suddenly and can be life-threatening. When they recorded very high blood pressure and the following characteristics:
- expressed headache;
- partial loss of vision;
- nausea and vomiting;
- significant flushing of the skin and increased sweating;
- pain behind the breastbone;
- shortness of breath;
- at very high blood pressure possible seizures;
If signs of hypertensive crisis, the patient must be urgently hospitalized. First aid includes the following:
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- You need to reassure the patient, to free him from the oppressive clothing, provide fresh air.
- The patient should be put to bed (in a semi-sitting position).
- On the head it is recommended to apply cold, and lower leg – warm (you can use mustard or warmer).
- To reduce the anxiety the patient is allowed to take an infusion of Valerian, you can take under the tongue Validol or Nitroglycerin, which reduces discomfort behind the breastbone. Minor therapeutic effect reception But-shpy (the specified drug, relieves spasm of blood vessels). Hypertension in nursing mothers should refrain from taking any medications as most of the pharmacological drugs can enter breast milk and adversely affect the condition of the child, breastfeeding.
- If the pressure is increased, the person is already diagnosed with hypertension, he should take the medicines prescribed by the attending physician. But it is important to remember that at high pressure patients usually require therapy in a cardiology hospital.
What to do with nosebleeds? Before the arrival of the doctor on the nose need to apply cold. Tip the head back is prohibited. When significant bleeding are recommended to introduce into the nasal passages gauze pads with hydrogen peroxide.
The patient is prescribed bed rest. With long-term hypertension are recommended to limit food intake. Blood pressure reduction should be gradual. If the pressure is dropping too fast, it will cause ischemia of the kidneys, a stroke or heart attack. At high pressure is first injected drugs intravenously (for example, Nifedipine or Clonidine), and the elimination of the crisis moving to a tableted form. In addition to antihypertensive drugs prescribed diuretic (Lasix), Aminophylline, if necessary – anti-convulsants (e.g., Relanium). Also at elevated pressure used drugs from the group of beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors.
If the hypertension becomes malignant in nature and combine with the manifestations of coronary, cerebrovascular or renal insufficiency, symptomatic therapy of these disorders. Patients who have increased the pressure after the normalization of the General condition should undergo supportive pharmacological treatment. It is also important to eliminate emotional stress and physical overload, limit salt intake, control body weight, give up bad habits. It is useful to massage the neck area, to take courses of leech therapy and speleotherapy, Spa treatment for the prevention of exacerbations.