High pressure and low pulse
Hypertension is a disease characterized by rise in blood pressure to high numbers. In itself, the increase in pressure does not indicate the presence of disease and can be caused by excessive exertion, stress, sudden changes in weather conditions. It would seem that people with hypertension should expect an increase in the number of cardiac contractions. Often, however, the increase in pressure combined with a slowing heart rate. This condition should pay close attention.
Blood pressure and pulse: norm and pathology
The normal range of blood pressure ranged from 110/70 to 130/90. If the figures from 140/100 and above is hypertension. Heart rate, or pulse, in a healthy person ranges from 60 to 80 beats per 1 minute. The magnitude of the bumps 90 and above indicates a rapid pulse (tachycardia). Slowing heart rate below 60 is called bradycardia.
Indicators of pressure and pulse are independent from each other – there are various options combinations. The lack of dependence of these two indicators is explained by the fact that the pressure increase is due to spasm of major blood vessels, and the frequency of pulse depends on the heart muscle. If high pressure is accompanied by a rare pulse, it can be caused by several reasons.
Why high pressure may be low heart rate?
The rare appearance of the pulse is possible even in the lightest, initial stage of hypertension. The most common causes are congenital heart diseases, congenital or acquired due to disease of rheumatism, infections or injuries:
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- Inflammatory diseases of any of the layers of the heart (muscle – myocarditis, inner – endocarditis, cardiac «bags» – pericarditis).
- Coronary heart disease, especially with a full or partial blockade of cardiac impulses.
- Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries – the presence of plaque inside blood vessels that supply blood to the heart.
- The presence of infarction of the area of scar tissue, which was replaced by muscle, for example after a heart attack.
- Dilated cardiomyopathy – a disease in which the heart chambers stretch and increase in volume.
- Arrhythmias caused by malfunction of the conduction system of the heart.
Data pathological conditions require professional assistance and constant observation and treatment at the doctor-the cardiologist. People suffering from hypertension in combination with bradycardia required a thorough examination and periodic hospitalization for status monitoring. In addition to cardiac pathologies, a low heart rate in hypertensive patients can cause other diseases:
- severe infection febrile conditions;
- endocrine disorders – thyroid disease, malfunctions of the hormonal balance;
- various anemic conditions;
- extensive or chronic bleeding;
- neoplastic processes.
Reason rare pulse against a high pressure, which are not associated with disease, may be noted the excessive workload in professional sports. Almost all of the athletes pulse is below 60 beats per minute, which is caused by hypertrophy (increase in mass) of the heart muscle. Long-hungry and half-starved diet can also lead to the development of bradycardia.
Stay in cold and icy water, the change in temperature of the environment cause high blood pressure temporary bouts of bradycardia. Treatment of hypertension beta-blockers (Propanolol, Metoprolol) contributes to the slowing of the pulse, as this is based on their action.
If a hypertensive heart rate slows down sharply, or, conversely, a patient with bradycardia, increased blood pressure, there is a deterioration of health, which can manifest the following symptoms:
- weakness, shortness of breath and feeling short of breath;
- nausea, perhaps vomiting;
- pain in the chest.
It is possible the pulse is so weak that it cannot be detected at the radial artery. Ripple can be determined by the carotid artery. In this case, you should immediately call a medical emergency as the patient’s condition dangerous for his life.
What to do?
Hypertensive patients should have a home unit for measuring pressure. If there’s another aetiology, it is advisable to purchase an electronic blood pressure monitor that displays blood pressure and pulse, plus, notes the presence of arrhythmias. All indicators should record and report at the next reception the doctor-cardiologist. Control is necessary, because even in hypertensive the pressure is low, and this condition requires a call for medical assistance. A doctor should decide about medical treatment. Beta-blockers are always excluded, treatment:
- ACE inhibitors (Captopril, Enalapril);
- alpha-blockers (Butiroksana, Doxazosine, Prazosinem);
- the angiotensin receptor blockers (Losartan);
- some diuretics (Hydrochlorothiazide).
In the presence of pathologies of the various organs and systems causing pressure rise and low heart rate need treatment of the underlying disease. For any reason should seek qualified medical help. Do not self medicate, especially when it comes to such a vital organ as the heart.
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