Hyperchromic anemia: what is it?
Under the anemia is any condition in which the human body does not produce enough healthy red blood cells. This is the most common disease of the blood system. It is believed that globally anemia affects more 1.6 billion people. Very often anemia is not an independent disease, and develops as a result of other diseases that disrupt the body’s ability to produce normal blood cells.
What is the anemia?
Anemia is a decrease in the level of red blood cells and their contained hemoglobin in the blood. Red blood cells are very important for human health, they contain hemoglobin (protein complex comprising the molecule of iron), which transportorul oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body.
What types anemia?
The most convenient and common classification is the section on causes. According to this criterion, there are:
- Anemia caused by blood loss.
- Anemia caused by decreased number of red blood cells or their functional deficiency.
- Anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells.
Also in the post-Soviet space there is a classification on the basis of determination of color index (CP), which reflects the degree of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte and is 0,86 – 1,1. According to this criterion are:
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- Hypochromic anaemia can develop at a reduced content of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. An example is the anemia due to iron deficiency.
- Normochromic anemia occurs in combination with a normal content of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. To this kind belong of anemia after bleeding, destruction of red blood cells.
- Hyperchromic anemia – occurs when elevated levels of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Causes of hyperchromic anemia
To hyperchromic anemia include:
- B12 deficiency anaemia develops due to lack of vitamin B12, needed to produce sufficient red blood cells. This may be the consequence of food that is poor in vitamin B12 (which is found mainly in meat, eggs and milk), a violation of his absorption in the intestines (after a surgical intervention in Crohn’s disease or coeliac disease). However, the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is lack of a substance called «intrinsic factor». Intrinsic factor is a protein produced by the stomach that binds to vitamin B12 and facilitates its absorption in the small intestine. This anemia caused by lack of intrinsic factor is called pernicious (malignant).
- Palaeodiversity anemia appears due to a lack of folic acid (vitamin B6), which is contained mainly in fruits and leafy vegetables. This type of anemia can result in lack of these foods, inability to absorb folic acid in the small intestine (e.g., in celiac disease, after the removal of the small intestine). Alcohol also reduces the absorption of folic acid.
- Myelodysplastic syndrome is a group of diseases caused by improper formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow or their poor functioning.
How to treat hyperchromic anemia?
Start the treatment only after establishing the exact cause of hyperchromic anemia. To appoint the necessary medicines may only qualified doctor. It should also be remembered that not every degree of anemia need drug therapy. Sometimes it is enough to improve the quality of nutrition, increase dietary content of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid. These substances are contained in various foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, eggs, lean meat and poultry, nuts, legumes.
If the anemia is severe or the modification power not effectively restores hemoglobin, your doctor may prescribe drug therapy, based on the exact established cause of the disease:
- When B12-deficiency anemia is prescribed vitamin B12.
- When palaeodiversity anemia, appoint folic acid.
- When myelodysplastic syndrome treatment includes the renewal quantity of red blood cells (transfusion of blood products, erythropoietin drugs), slow the progression of the disease (Lenalidomide, immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy, Azacitidine and Decitabine) and stem cell transplantation.