Hypertension: what is it?
The phrase «hypertension» sounds ominous enough, and many associated with serious injury or other disorders of blood vessels. In fact, with this pathology a familiar is a normal hypertension. There are many factors that can cause hypertension.
In fact, hypertension is often not a separate disease, but one of the symptoms that occur when more than 300 pathologies of cardiovascular and other systems.
Factors that can cause hypertension
Causes of hypertension can be many and determine which of them is observed in a particular patient is difficult. Most often cause hypertension pathology of the cardiovascular system and disorders blood flow through the vessels, namely:
- coarctation of the aorta, and patent ductus arteriosus (types of congenital heart disease);
- fibromuscular hyperplasia (narrowing of blood vessels in the heart);
- arteriovenous fistula (so-called penetration of arterial blood directly into veins without passing through capillary network);
- blockage of the renal artery by a blood clot;
- atherosclerosis of the arteries and renal arteries (deposition of cholesterol within the walls);
- panarteritis (inflammation of all layers of the artery);
- the hyperkinetic heart syndrome (one of the varieties of vegeto-vascular dystonia;
- frequent blood transfusions;
- polycythemia (benign tumors of the blood system);
- problems with the conduction of the electrical impulse on the conducting system of the heart.
Often hypertension is caused by poisoning by toxic substances – like falling from the external environment, and those that are produced in the body of a patient. We are talking about alcoholism, Smoking, tetanus, toxemia of pregnancy, excessive consumption of licorice, ingestion of lead or salts of heavy metals in the body and also about the reception of a number of drugs — oral contraceptives, hormonal agents, sympathomimetic agents (drugs to stimulation of the sympathetic nerves), analgesics, etc. it is Logical that the increased blood pressure affects the nervous system. Hypertension may occur:
Pressure fell below normal?
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- for tumors, injury or inflammation of the brain;
- when damage to the spinal cord;
- when bulbar poliomyelitis;
- at diencephalic syndrome (complex of symptoms after lesions of the hypothalamic-pituitary system);
- when polyneuritis (nerve damage);
- in acute increased intracranial pressure;
- disease Riley-day (a hereditary disease associated with autonomic dysfunction).
It is also possible psychogenic hypertension, when the pressure increases due to stress and nervous breakdowns. When a person has observed a violation of the metabolism or endocrine system, may also cause hypertension. Important factors include:
- primary hyperaldosteronism (a syndrome characterized to speed adrenal hyperplasia and excessive secretion of aldosterone, which directly affects the increase in blood pressure and an increase in the number of circulating blood);
- hyperadrenocorticism (an increased number of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex);
- pheochromocytoma (especially tumor, which can produce adrenaline and noradrenaline);
- thyrotoxicosis (a syndrome in which accelerated thyroid gland);
- hypothyroidism (myxedema) — insufficient production of thyroid hormones;
- acromegaly (pathology of the anterior pituitary, which increase in size hands, feet, frontal part of the skull, etc.);
- insulin resistance (impaired response of body tissues to insulin);
- menopause, menopause, post-castration syndrome (a phenomenon observed after the simultaneous termination of the functioning of the ovaries);
- acute intermittent porphyria (metabolism disorder which causes neurological symptoms);
- hypercalcemia (excessive calcium in the blood).
The last group of factors are the pathology of the kidney, namely, glomerulo — and pyelonephritis, nephropathy, polycystic disease (presence of cysts), inflammation and kidney injury, abnormal number or arrangement of the genitourinary system renal failure and other.
Hypertensive patients who notice increased blood pressure randomly during the examination, can not pay attention to the presence of other manifestations of illness. In fact, they just may not be. In some cases, patients feel a headache, dizziness, disturbs their flies flashing before my eyes. You cannot ignore the symptoms, characteristic abnormalities, which are causes of hypertension.
Degrees and stages of hypertension
We should distinguish between the different degrees of development of hypertension. For the very first stage is characterized by a slight increase in blood pressure (up to 140 – 159/90 – 99 mm Hg.St), for the second — to 179/109, and for the third — above 180/110. The stage of hypertension — index, indicating the affection of organs and systems of organs, the presence of specific symptoms, etc. Each stage corresponds to the degree of hypertension (that is, for second stage, second degree, etc.).
For the first stage is characterized by the absence or small number of hypertensive crises, as well as the normal state of target organs, which include the heart, brain and kidneys. In the second stage hypertensive crises occur more frequently, can be detected by kidney damage, and increase the boundaries of the heart beyond the norm. At the third stage, pressure increases, and the patient is observed rapid development of renal and heart failure. Affected target organs.
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Diagnosis of hypertension
Often hypertension means that occurs in the body, pathological processes of many organs. Therefore, only one measurement of blood pressure is insufficient for proper examination and treatment of patient with arterial hypertension. Depending on the specific symptoms and causes of disease, which suspects the doctor, the patient can be encouraged to:
- General analyses of urine and blood;
- biochemistry of the blood;
- tests for hormones;
- Heart ultrasound, thyroid and other internal organs;
- visit an ophthalmologist for examination of eye bottom vessels;
- arteriography (x-ray study of the state of the lumen and walls of arteries);
- Doppler (ultrasound blood flow in veins and arteries), and others.
Treatment of hypertension
Treatment of hypertension depends on the stage of development of pathology. For example, for the first stage is fairly non-drug therapy. What is it? The patient needs a special diet, aimed at reducing the amount of consumed salt, do physical therapy, to enter the light mode of the day, more rest, not to worry over nothing, stop Smoking and alcoholic drinks. For patients with excess weight is extremely important to lose weight, because obesity also affects the development of hypertension.
The treatment of the disease at later stages must be integrated. In addition to the appointment of a number of medication, the patient is instructed to observe the rules of non-pharmacological treatments described above. Feature of medication is that to date, no such drug that could help lower blood pressure patients to the required level. For this we have to drink from 2 – 3 different pills. Sometimes these pills (or rather, their active ingredients) are combined in one drug.
To what level should reduce the pressure?
For this reason long been some debate, as different people even with high blood pressure may feel well, but the norm makes them uncomfortable. Overall, I came to the conclusion that the normal rate of blood pressure values are up to 130/85. Normal high blood pressure level is considered to 139/89 — up to this increased pressure and «knock». For some patients, it is important to reduce the pressure to 130/85 or lower (for the most part, we are talking about patients with diabetes).
Prognosis and possible complications of hypertension
That is a persistent increase in pressure exacerbates the risk of a large number of cardiovascular diseases, which kill an average of 53% of the population. However, a lethal outcome must be constantly violate doctor’s orders and to cease to monitor their health.
It should be noted that men with arterial hypertension complicated more often than women. The forecast can also be affected by the stage of hypertension, pressure, presence of atherosclerosis and other related diseases — diabetes, ischemic heart disease, renal pathologies, etc. Interesting fact that the younger the patient is, the harder it is for disease, so in adolescents and children is extremely important is the timely diagnosis of hypertension.
Hypertension threatens the development of stroke, myocardial infarction, ophthalmologic abnormalities, cardiac and renal failure. Maintaining the health of the patient at a normal level and prevent the development of complications is possible only in case of exact compliance with the patients all the doctor’s orders. Self harmful to your health!