Hypertensive crisis: symptoms and first aid
Hypertensive crisis is a pathology belonging to the group of urgent issues. It is directly connected with hypertension and is manifested by increased blood pressure over 200/110. After a short time from this state the patient starting to wonder about some bodies, and why it is important to reduce the indicators.
Hypertensive crisis due to sudden increase in pressure does not only occur disorders of neuro-vegetative plan, but observed with organic changes in the Central nervous system, heart, major veins and arteries. This state lasts no more than a few days, in most cases it takes only a few hours of being acutely ill. Hypertensive crisis is not as common as a complication of hypertension, only 1% of cases. Often diagnose abnormalities in women, especially during menopause. Noted that with the emergence of hypertensive crisis once, the chance of disease again.
Most often a complication of hypertensive crisis occurs in patients with hypertension, and those pathologies, which are accompanied by increase in pressure. As for the factors that trigger the development of acute conditions, they can be different. The most common causes of hypertensive crisis:
- failure to follow the assigned diet and abuse of salt;
- ignoring the doctor’s instructions;
- unauthorized withdrawal of drugs that reduce blood pressure;
- excessive exercise;
- sudden change in the weather (especially in bad weather);
- the abuse of alcohol;
- anxiety and stress;
- Smoking, etc.
The symptoms of hypertensive crisis
The symptoms of this condition are such that the patient required first aid, including first aid. That is why it is important to know the algorithm of emergency care in hypertensive crisis. The easiest way to determine the pathology of the patient to measure blood pressure. However, you must remember that the index ambiguous value, and for some patients even 200/110 may be normal pressure, and for someone and 160/90 is too high. As for external manifestations, hypertensive crisis is accompanied by:
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- sadisco, feeling short of breath;
- weakness and fatigue;
- arrhythmia and increased heart rate, up to a tachycardia;
- excessive sweating;
- nausea and vomiting;
- «goose bumps»;
- sense of internal tremor;
- with impaired vision;
- cold sweat;
- trembling of the hands (tremor);
- insomnia and anxiety and nervous excitement and anxiety;
- redness (erythema) of the face.
Emergency treatment of hypertensive crisis
The disease is highly dependent on observed patient has complicated or uncomplicated type. In the second case, the status is easier, has fewer complications and consequences for the organism, organs are not affected. In addition, uncomplicated hypertensive crisis does not require hospitalization or long-term therapy.
For starters, you need to immediately call an ambulance at the first suspicion on a sharp increase in blood pressure, clearly stating the symptoms. Before the arrival of the doctor, the patient must provide emergency assistance. First, the patient is placed on a bed, in a half upright position. This pose will allow you to warn occurrence of asthma or to relieve them.
As already mentioned, in hypertensive crisis patients concerned about hand tremors and chills. To calm the patient and keep him warm, you need to wrap the legs at the knee with a blanket, use a heating pad, to warm the feet a hot bath or to put mustard plasters on the calves. All of these ways, among them there is no fundamental difference, more important is the usability of the application in a specific case and the skills of the person providing assistance. Despite the fact that the patient is warm, you should open the window in the room where he was. When asthma attacks or shortness of breath it will help the patient to adjust the breathing and safer to breathe.
In addition to physiotherapy, you can use the method and medical assistance. Offer the patient appointed physician extraordinary pill against hypertension (please note that the drug must be recommended by a specialist, not voluntarily assign or unassign drugs!).
As some patients in parallel with the increase in blood pressure observed heart pain, you should take a tablet of Validol or Nitroglycerin, putting them under the tongue. With severe headaches use diuretics. As in the case of antihypertensive drugs, all funds must be pre-designated doctor.
When the EMTs arrive, the doctor will determine if there is a need for hospitalization and provide first aid to the patient, introducing him intravenous drugs to reduce blood pressure. During the first few hours of the indices will be reduced by not more than 20 – 25%. During this period eating is not recommended. After 6 hours hypertension blood pressure levels will be established for acceptable performance around 160/100 mm Hg. article
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If the patient feels better and health improves, you can put it on tablets which is extremely important not to cancel voluntarily. In the case where the improvement of the condition is not observed, call an ambulance again, and the patient hospitalityat and taken to the intensive care unit.
Treatment prognosis in most cases favorable, however, if we are talking about complicated hypertensive crisis, may not be so good. The defeat of target organs could face disability and even death.
Complications of hypertensive crisis
As already mentioned, the most terrible complications of this disease are organic changes in organs and their total defeat. These States can be manifested by edema of the lungs and brain, acute violation of cerebral circulation, renal failure, stroke and heart attack.
The danger of hypertensive crisis in that, in the failure to provide urgent care can even be fatal. In addition, the problem is the inability to control blood pressure after a seizure, which the patient must take anti-hypertensive drugs, as well as systematically seen by a doctor.
Remember that a hypertensive crisis is an urgent condition and in any case does not imply self-treatment or therapy of folk remedies. Ignoring instructions from the doctor and excessive «autonomy» can result for the patient serious problems and even death. Do not self-medicate and be healthy!