Hypertensive crisis: what is it?

Hypertensive (hypertensive) crisis – a sharp, strong (from 220 to 120 mm Hg. calendar) jump in blood pressure lasting from hours to a day or more. This increase in pressure can be accompanied by disturbances of functions of vegetative nervous system, as well as significant changes in the body, especially in the Central nervous system, heart and blood vessels.

The average normal blood pressure (BP) in young people with good health in the range of 110 – 130 mm Hg. art. for systolic blood pressure 70 – 90 mm Hg. article for diastolic. But depending on the age, sex and other factors, this option may move up or down. Therefore, to determine what it is, a hypertensive crisis or an individual norm HELL appreciate not only the numerical values of the pressure, but the patient’s state of health.

Hypertensive crisis occurs most often in patients with arterial hypertension, at least – is a consequence of other diseases. Usually a pressure surge develops on the background of already high blood pressure but sometimes at a completely normal value of the current pressure of the patient. The factors that increase the likelihood of developing a hypertensive crisis:

  • menopause in women;
  • malignant hypertension;
  • stress and other psychological and emotional factors;
  • the sudden climate change;
  • the use of alcohol;
  • excessive fluid intake;
  • cessation of medication for hypertension.

Distinctive features of hypertensive crisis:

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  • a very strong increase in blood pressure;
  • an increase in the frequency of cardiac rhythm;
  • redness of the skin (hyperemia), most often on the face;
  • swelling of the face;
  • uncomfortable or painful sensations in the heart region;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • shortness of breath;
  • problems with hearing and eyesight;
  • noises in the ears;
  • dizziness and headaches (usually in the neck);
  • weakness;
  • the decreased sensitivity of the hands and feet (tingling, numbness, etc.).
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Cause of visual impairment in hypertensive crisis is the rupture of small blood vessels located in the organs of the eyes, or swelling of the optic nerve. In addition to the above symptoms, sudden AD can be accompanied by the development of feelings of fear, worry, anxiety, increased irritability or lethargy, the occurrence of chills and tremors.

In rare cases of hypertensive crisis can lead to serious consequences like coma, pulmonary edema, blood clots and subsequent occlusion of blood vessels, acute renal failure associated with impaired urinary function and accumulation in the blood of excess nitrogen-containing metabolic products.
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If the patient happens to be a hypertensive crisis, it is important to make the right diagnosis, as this phenomenon may indicate very serious diseases. Diseases that can cause a hypertensive crisis:

  • sclerotic lesions of the arteries;
  • panarteritis;
  • lupus;
  • diabetes;
  • Cushing’s disease;
  • acute alkogolizma hypertension;
  • kidney disease;
  • the mobility of the kidneys (especially as a result of heavy lifting);
  • malfunction of the kidneys in pregnant women;
  • pheochromocytoma (a tumor is able to produce hormones, localized in the medulla of the adrenal glands or other organs).

The kidneys greatly affects the AD, and among these diseases of kidney disease especially often cause a hypertensive crisis. In such cases, the increase in pressure is often accompanied by swelling of the brain that need to be taken into consideration in developing a course of treatment.

Pheochromocytoma in blood pressure and duration of increase determined by the secretory activity of the tumor. Additional symptoms pheochromocytoma: increased sweating, pallor and decreased skin temperature, in some cases, hyperthermia, pain in the heart region and abdomen, fears, headaches, dilated pupils, muscle cramps, disturbance of sensation of the limbs, nausea and vomiting. All these symptoms are caused by tumor release of a large number of hormones. At the end of the release of the symptoms is removed and the patient comes sharp breakdown. Especially dangerous jump in blood pressure in the following cases:

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  • stroke;
  • subarachnoid hemorrhage;
  • organic lesion and brain edema;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • failure of the left ventricle;
  • eclampsia in pregnant women;
  • violation of vascular of the retina;
  • the presence of blood in the urine.

In the presence of a listed disease develops so-called complicated hypertensive crisis, posing a threat to life.

Treatment of hypertensive crisis

For the successful treatment of hypertensive crisis, the patient must provide a calm emotional atmosphere. Recommended complete bed rest. If the crisis is protracted, it should limit the power of the therapeutic table No. 10 or 10A. To reduce sharply the HELL not, in order to avoid the development of renal ischemia, stroke, cerebral and myocardial infarction.

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The pressure decrease should be smooth, not more than 25% of the initial level per hour.

Providing first aid to patients with high blood pressure, you should be very careful as depending on the true causes of development of hypertensive crisis first aid and treatment should be completely different. So potent medicines in the absence of accurate self-diagnosis to give the patient is not necessary. Consult or call an ambulance.