Hypertrophy of the right or of the left atrium: what is it?
Each heart has a specific function. The Atria are the smaller of the cameras, which accumulate in its cavity, a certain amount of blood, and then push it into the ventricles. Hypertrophy (increase in size) of the Atria occurs for various reasons and suggests that the heart has to work harder. In fact, it cannot be considered a separate disease, but only a manifestation of changes in the mode of operation of the body. Heart like any other muscle, can be exhausted. In this case, the increase in its dimensions leads to serious complications or even death of the patient. Therefore, in each case of this condition need to find out the cause to avoid unfortunate consequences.
Hypertrophy of the Atria. What is it?
It is a congenital or acquired increase in the size of the Atria. Often this overgrowth of the heart muscle occurs as a compensation for increased physical activities when the body requires more oxygen and nutrients. It is considered a physiological hypertrophy. To operate in emergency mode, the heart increases in size.
Hypertrophy of the left atrium
Left division (atrium and ventricle) is normal in size and volume than the right. This is due to the fact that they chase the blood through the systemic circulation, which is costly. The reasons for this thickening of the walls of the Atria can be:
Congenital or acquired defects. Between the parts of the heart are the mitral valve, which should prevent the return of blood from the ventricle back into the atrium. When defect (stenosis of the mitral orifice, or mitral valve prolapse) there is a partial return of blood to the left atrium during each systole (contraction) of the left ventricle. The volume of blood in the atrium with each systole is increased and to push it back into the ventricles, you need to expend more energy, so the walls of the chambers thicken. On the contrary, when the stenosis (narrowing) of the aorta, the left division of the heart has to overcome the resistance in order to push blood into the vessels. It is to increase the health body increases the number of cardiomyocytes (cardiac muscle cells), which leads to hypertrophy (growth). In this case, increased wall and the left ventricle, and left atrium.
Obesity. The mechanism of expansion of the walls of the Atria in this case is associated usually with high blood pressure in the great vessels. This increases the load on the heart muscle, the authority has the power to push blood to the area with higher pressure to an area with a lot of pressure. As compensation, the muscle is growing, there is hypertrophy.
Cardiomyopathy is a heart disease, a common cause of which is lack of oxygen and nutrients. Against this background, also is the growth of tissues and hypertrophy of its departments.
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Inflammatory diseases of the heart muscle (myocarditis). In this case, the contractile function is reduced and to facilitate to itself work, heart muscle cells are actively dividing, distributing the load.
Hypertension the mechanism of development is the same as in obesity.
Kidney disease accompanied by high blood pressure.
Stress. Any stressful situation is accompanied by the release of adrenaline in the blood, which leads to vasoconstriction, rise in blood pressure, increased resistance in the vasculature and hypertrophy of the heart.
Lung disease (emphysema, pulmonary edema). This is the most rare of reasons.
Hypertrophy of the left occurs in extreme degrees of the disease, after expanding the right departments of heart.
Hypertrophy of the right atrium
The increase of the right heart is less common and occurs as a result of increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, i.e. the pulmonary circulation. The reasons for this hypertrophy may be:
Acute or chronic lung disease (bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, emphysema). Any inflammatory or obstructive process in the bronchi or lungs entails the constriction of pulmonary vessels and increasing blood pressure. This leads to the fact that the right heart has to overcome the resistance in the pulmonary trunk, pushing blood into the pulmonary artery. In order to facilitate their work, the body increases the number of operating cells, where there is hypertrophy of the heart muscle.
Congenital or acquired malformations of the tricuspid valve. Stenosis (narrowing) of the tricuspid orifice, located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, the atrium must push through the regular amount of blood through a smaller hole. It requires a lot of energy, which leads to the fact that the heart muscle compensatory growing. In case of insufficiency (prolapse) of the tricuspid valve of the blood from the right ventricle returns to the right atrium. With each contraction blood volume increases, which is also costly. Heart shares the load evenly on the muscle cells. To reduce this load, increasing the number of cells (hypertrophy).
Right ventricular hypertrophy entails an increase in the size of the right atrium. All the parts of the heart are related to each other. The increase in the size of one Department will result in an increase and other departments. The more severe stage of the disease, the more parts of the heart increased in size.