Increased diastolic blood pressure: causes, treatment, how to reduce?
The increase in diastolic (bottom figure) blood pressure is higher than normal indicates a pathological condition of the vessels of the arterial bed. This type of hypertension isolated (systolic blood pressure remains within normal limits) is quite rare, on average 6 – 9% of all cases of high blood pressure. To date, arterial hypertension (combined diastolic) is more common among young people.
The mechanism of development of diastolic hypertension
The term «hypertension» determines increase in blood pressure (values characterizing the degree of pressure of blood against the walls of blood vessels expressed in mm Hg. calendar). The formation of blood pressure involves several mechanisms, which include:
- Volume cardiac output – the volume of blood that is expelled into the vasculature during systole (contraction) of the heart.
- The resistance of the vessel walls is ensured due to the elasticity of the arterial walls, which «squeeze» the blood.
- Blood volume total blood volume is slightly higher than the total volume of the vascular bed, thereby also being formed blood pressure.
The pressure level is represented by 2 parameters – the systolic and diastolic pressure. Indicator systolic blood pressure above, it is formed during the systole of the heart when blood is pushed into the bloodstream. Normally, this figure should be within 90 – 140 mm Hg. article
The indicator of diastolic blood pressure below, he formed at the time of relaxation of the heart due to the elasticity of the arteries and total blood volume. Its rate varies from 60 – 90 mm Hg. article Hypertension at the time of diastole (relaxation) of the heart is usually due to narrowing of the arteries (spasm of blood vessels) or high blood volume.
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The reasons for the increases in pressure during diastole of the heart
Most of the causes, the effects which develops increased diastolic pressure, leading to narrowing of blood vessels of the arterial bed. These include:
- Pathological processes in the kidney, tissue which (juxtaglomerular machine) produce a number of biologically active compounds, resulting in increased tone of smooth muscles of the arterial walls and reduce the lumen of blood vessels (renin, angiotensin). Such diseases include atherosclerotic vascular disease of the kidneys (deposition of cholesterol in arterial walls of the kidneys, leading to the reduction of their lumen, while the cells yukstaglomerulyarnogo apparatus strenuously produce angiotensin and renin), autoimmune inflammatory disorders (glomerulonephritis).
- Thyroid disease, accompanied by increased functional activity and increased concentration of hormones that enhance the activity of the sympathetic part of the nervous system, leading to increased tone and contraction of the arteries.
- Fluid retention in the body leading to increased blood volume. It can be triggered by the violation of the functional activity of the kidneys (decrease in excretion of salts and water from the body), hormonal disorders (increased level of aldosterone leads to delay of sodium in the body, leading to an increase in blood volume), excessive consumption of salt, which retains water in the bloodstream and intercellular substance.
Also high diastolic pressure is developed in combination with an increase in systolic increased hypertension, which is a long-term hypertension.
Arterial hypertension with a primary increase in diastolic blood pressure is manifested by dizziness, headache (usually in the neck), a feeling of discomfort in the heart area (usually has the character of a clenching pain or palpitations), «cold sweat» and the feeling of anxiety. Similar symptoms can also accompany low blood pressure (hypotension). Therefore, for accurate diagnosis of hypertension is a monthly measurement of blood pressure using medical tonometer.
How to reduce high diastolic blood pressure?
Treatment of arterial hypotension, characterized mainly by increase in diastolic blood pressure, performed after the diagnosis of the causes of its development. To lower this figure, applied a few basic therapeutic interventions. These include:
- The implementation of the General recommendations that improve the functional state of the heart and blood vessels – with the exception of diet of fried fatty foods, limiting the admission of salt in the body (not more than 1.5 g of salt per day), avoiding harmful habits, increasing physical activity (walking for half an hour a day significantly reduces the risk of hypertension and development of vascular pathology, kidney and heart).
- The use of drugs that reduce the tone of the arteries of this pharmacological group of drugs include blockers of the channels of the cells for calcium ions (Amlodipine), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, which reduce the concentration of angiotensin in blood (lisinopril).
- The exception is exposure to the causative factors, the therapy of pathological processes identified in the course of diagnostics (recovery of functional activity of kidneys, reducing the level of cholesterol in blood, normalization of hormonal background).
To assess the effectiveness of the therapy is obligatory to perform periodic monitoring of blood pressure – both systolic and diastolic. The house also used some herbal remedies to combat hypertension (table beet, cranberry). Before use, be sure to consult with your doctor.
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