Increased hemoglobin in the blood: what does this mean?
A large number of diseases in the human body occurs with a decrease in hemoglobin levels. However, as a result of exposure to a number of pathological and physiological factors may increase his level, so if the diagnosis of this condition are necessarily conducted additional studies to exclude some diseases.
What is hemoglobin and how is it formed?
Hemoglobin is a specific protein, which is the basis of red blood cells. Its main function is to transport oxygen and reverse transfer of carbon dioxide (from the lungs to the tissues and back). This function is provided by a competitive binding molecule gases of iron-containing protein. It is synthesized in the process of formation and maturation of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) in the red bone marrow. Since the body is the physiological destruction of red blood cells (their average life expectancy varies from 90 to 120 days), erythropoiesis occurs continuously, providing a relatively constant level of hemoglobin and number of erythrocytes in the blood.
How is hemoglobin?
Determination of hemoglobin is performed during clinical analysis of blood. The necessary amount taken from a finger blood (about 0.02 ml) is entered into a special transformative solution. Then, by colorimetry, the intensity of color of the resulting solution is determined by the amount of this protein that appears in the result of the analysis in g/l (grams per 1 liter of blood). The normal value of the index depends on age and gender, on average, it is 120 – 160 g/l.
Level rise – what does this mean?
The concentration of the protein in the unit of blood may increase by 2 mechanisms that can take place in combination or separately. Often increased hemoglobin in the blood is by increasing the number of red blood cells and protein concentration in individual red blood cell remains unchanged. Some are less may increase the overall level due to the increase in concentration at unchanged number of red blood cells. The implementation of these mechanisms may occur under the action of physiological and pathological factors.
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Physiological factors increase
In a few situations, the high content of hemoglobin is a physiological compensatory reaction, which is implemented in terms of the need for enhanced delivery of oxygen to the tissues. These factors include:
- Gender – male body has more muscle mass and the intensity of metabolic processes that occur with the participation of oxygen so that normal hemoglobin is higher than that of women.
- The age of the child due to the predominance of processes of formation, maturation cells and tissues of the body need in their diet and providing more oxygen, so the concentration of the iron-containing protein is higher, it reaches its maximum values immediately after birth and gradually decreases in puberty.
- Staying human in conditions of low oxygen concentration in the air – the inhabitants of the mountain districts of the hemoglobin in normal is higher, this means that at low partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air in order to provide sufficient him of the organism, reactive increases the concentration of the protein in red blood cells. Finding such a person in conditions with normal oxygen concentration leads to a gradual decrease in hemoglobin.
The main feature of the physiological factors is the fact that as of the end of their exposure to the concentration of the protein compounds gradually returns to its statistical norm without the need for therapeutic interventions. Under the influence of such factors, the number of erythrocytes usually is not increased (except in childhood, when red blood cells and hemoglobin are increased proportionally).
Diseases in which increased levels of hemoglobin, conventionally divided into the pathology of the blood system and bone marrow, and other organs and systems. The main disease of the red bone marrow, leading to an increase in hemoglobin is erythremia. Cancer is a process characterized by increased formation of red blood cells, the amount of which increases in the peripheral blood.
Some of them, despite the high content of blood does not sufficiently physiological function, because the cells have a large size (exceed the normal diameter of 7 – 8 microns) to pass through the capillaries and other vessels of the microvasculature (arterioles, venules). Diseases of other organs and systems include:
- Dehydration (dehydration) – decrease in plasma volume if the flow of fluid in the body or when it is intense excretion (diarrhea, polyuria, excessive sweating) leads to thickening of the blood, and the relative increase of hemoglobin per unit volume.
- Some cancers for which there is a compensatory increase in the number of red blood cells (cancer of the kidney, uterus).
- Severe burns with significant lesion in the skin area at which there is a considerable effusion of plasma volume and blood clots.
- Chronic lung pathology (cancer, obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma) accompanied by a violation of oxygen in the blood with subsequent increase in hemoglobin levels.
- Taking some medicines (steroid hormones).
- Hormonal and metabolic disorders, particularly diabetes.
Elevated hemoglobin is more saturated red color of the skin, especially the face and the visible mucous membranes. To determine the exact reason for this state is necessarily performed for more objective diagnosis using various methods of research.
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